%PDF-1.3
1 0 obj
<< /Type /Catalog
/Outlines 2 0 R
/Pages 3 0 R >>
endobj
2 0 obj
<< /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >>
endobj
3 0 obj
<< /Type /Pages
/Kids [6 0 R
32 0 R
]
/Count 2
/Resources <<
/ProcSet 4 0 R
/Font <<
/F1 8 0 R
/F2 9 0 R
/F3 10 0 R
/F4 11 0 R
/F5 12 0 R
/F6 13 0 R
>>
>>
/MediaBox [0.000 0.000 612.000 792.000]
>>
endobj
4 0 obj
[/PDF /Text ]
endobj
5 0 obj
<<
/Creator (DOMPDF)
/CreationDate (D:20200409131528+00'00')
/ModDate (D:20200409131528+00'00')
/Title (The theory of complex phenomena – Emergence: Complexity and Organization)
>>
endobj
6 0 obj
<< /Type /Page
/Parent 3 0 R
/Annots [ 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ]
/Contents 7 0 R
>>
endobj
7 0 obj
<<
/Length 30326 >>
stream
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 227.982 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Emergence: Complexity and Organization. Emergence: Complexity and Organization.)] TJ ET
q
15.000 736.397 577.500 28.698 re W n
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 15.000 745.137 Td /F2 21.0 Tf [(The theory of complex phenomena)] TJ ET
Q
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 15.000 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(June 30, 2007)] TJ ET
BT 74.846 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(·)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 79.721 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(Classic Paper)] TJ ET
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 715.290 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Friedrich A. von Hayek)] TJ ET
BT 124.862 715.290 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(, )] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 130.283 715.290 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Friedrich Hayek)] TJ ET
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 703.386 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(von Hayek FA, Hayek F. The theory of complex phenomena. Emergence: Complexity and Organization. 2007 Jun 30 [last )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 691.481 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(modified: 2016 Nov 30]. Edition 1. doi: 10.emerg/10.17357.4e008a2d2e0301f038b838fd03db9d66.)] TJ ET
q
15.000 22.525 577.500 666.575 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 662.378 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Abstract)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 642.424 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 605.822 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Hayek’s)] TJ ET
BT 71.610 605.822 Td /F5 12.0 Tf [(The Theory of Complex Phenomena)] TJ ET
BT 276.318 605.822 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(: A Precocious Play on the Epistemology of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 591.170 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Complexity)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 571.215 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Friedrich Hayek’s )] TJ ET
BT 104.260 571.215 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(The Theory of Complex Phenomena)] TJ ET
BT 261.410 571.215 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( \(Hayek, 1964\) is a precocious and far-sighted attempt to illuminate a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 559.311 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(topic that has loomed increasingly important in the 53 years since the printing of the paper: the epistemology of complexity. It )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 547.406 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(posits a tension between real insight into complex phenomena and a narrow — but, common — interpretation of a Popperian )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 535.501 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(falsificationism, and suggests that we make a ‘hard choice’ — one that subsequent research and philosophical forays into )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 523.596 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity science can be usefully understood as having implicitly made on numerous occasions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 504.192 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Popper suggested )] TJ ET
BT 108.091 504.192 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(actual)] TJ ET
BT 134.105 504.192 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( falsifiability of hypotheses derived from a theory as a criterion of demarcation between scientific and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 492.287 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘metaphysical’ or ‘pseudo-scientific’ theories and of choice among alternative empirical theories \(Popper, 1959\). Thus, the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 480.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘theory’ which states that ‘the orbit of planet Z has the form of a circle, i.e, )] TJ ET
BT 344.353 480.382 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(x)] TJ ET
BT 349.228 484.270 Td /F1 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 354.047 480.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( + )] TJ ET
BT 365.162 480.382 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(y)] TJ ET
BT 370.037 484.270 Td /F1 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 374.856 480.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(=)] TJ ET
BT 380.550 480.382 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(R)] TJ ET
BT 387.589 484.270 Td /F1 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 392.408 480.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(’ is to be preferred \(before testing\) to a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 468.477 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(theory which states that ‘the orbit of planet Z has the form of an ellipse, i.e., )] TJ ET
BT 353.041 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(a)] TJ ET
BT 358.462 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 363.280 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(x)] TJ ET
BT 368.155 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 372.974 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(+b)] TJ ET
BT 384.089 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 388.908 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(y)] TJ ET
BT 393.783 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 398.601 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(=c)] TJ ET
BT 409.170 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 413.989 468.477 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( because it takes fewer points — or, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 456.573 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(measurements \(namely, 3\) to disconfirm the former theory than it takes \(4\) to disconfirm the latter. Popper capitalizes on the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 444.668 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(example to make the point that the \(normative\) emphasis placed by some philosophers of science on simplicity as a criterion for )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 432.763 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(theory choice )] TJ ET
BT 86.944 432.763 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(follows from)] TJ ET
BT 138.950 432.763 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( \(and is therefore not independent of\) a commitment to actual falsifiability.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 413.358 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(This is precisely the point that Hayek focuses on, in reference to ‘complex phenomena’. He sees that the astute researcher of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 401.454 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity faces a hard choice between the ‘point-wise’ testability that Popper takes for granted on the one hand, and insight or )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 389.549 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(understanding on the other — and advocates that the constraints which testability places on theory choice be loosened in favor )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 377.644 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of allowing for more complicated nomological relationships among independent variables, which, in turn, will orient the empiricist )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 365.739 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(away from attempting to predict point events and towards predicting ‘patterns’ or dynamical regimes. This is a precocious and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 353.835 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(far sighted insight, and here is a case in point: Apparently unbeknownst to Hayek \(plausibly so: Hayek finished the paper in )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 341.930 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(1961, two years before the Lorenz paper that kicked off ‘chaos theory’ was published\), chaos theory got off the ground )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 330.025 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(approximately at the same time Hayek was writing his paper, starting from \(Edward\) Lorenz’s startling realization that some )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 318.120 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamical systems \(such as that made up by the coupling between the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations he )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 306.216 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(was trying to solve numerically and the finite-precision arithmetic operations that his computer instantiated\) exhibit highly )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 294.311 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(sensitive dependence of their long-run dynamics on their initial conditions, such that two points in the phase space of the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 282.406 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(system that start out arbitrarily close together will — in the course of the system’s evolution and after an only finite amount of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 270.501 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(time — end up very far apart. ‘Chaos theory’, then, touches reality not by making predictions about point events, but, rather, by )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 258.597 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(specifying dynamical systems and regimes or regions of their parameter spaces that exhibit ‘transition to chaos’ \(Ott, 2002\) — )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 246.692 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(that is, by making predictions about )] TJ ET
BT 181.782 246.692 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(patterns)] TJ ET
BT 217.009 246.692 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( of behavior rather than about highly localized space-time hyper-volumes \(‘points’\) )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 234.787 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of behavior.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 215.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(But, is the development of an empirical chaos theory really a validation of Hayek’s claim that strict falsificationism must be )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 203.478 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(relaxed in order to make progress on a science of complexity? Note, in this regard, that formal languages used for representing )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 191.573 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamical systems \(such as those exhibiting chaotic behavior\) come equipped with highly efficacious state space contraction )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 179.668 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(devices and maneuvers, which collapse half-planes into lines and lines into points. It is, then, possible — by the application of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 167.763 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(such devices — to render predictions about macroscopic patterns and dynamical regimes of behavior into predictions about the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 155.859 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘rate of transition to chaos and boundaries between ordered and disordered behavior, which make possible precisely the kind of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 143.954 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(subsequent ‘point-wise testing’ that Popper is often interpreted as having had in mind. Doing so, however, will presuppose a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 132.049 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(flexibility on the part of the researcher at a level which most social scientists in general and economists trained in the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 120.144 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(neoclassical tradition in particular have to date had little consideration for: the ontological one — a flexibility about the objects in-)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 108.240 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(terms-of-which discourse proceeds. This is something that Hayek glimpses and points the way to his paper, without fully calling )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 96.335 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(out: ‘statistics’ — he argues — cannot be used to teach us much about a population of computers, unless we also have access )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 84.430 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(to the code that runs on them \(Hayek, 1961, )] TJ ET
BT 219.193 84.430 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(ibid)] TJ ET
BT 234.364 84.430 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(.\). Knowledge of the code used to design the computers will not only give us a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 72.525 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(radically different number and set of hypotheses that ‘statistics’ can be used to test, but also, perhaps more importantly, a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 60.621 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(different conceptualization of the ‘computer’ in terms of ‘intentional’ terms \(‘algorithms’\) rather than in terms of causal entities )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 48.716 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(‘electrons and holes’\). And this may be a far more penetrating insight of Hayek’s paper than is the exhortation to loosen the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 36.811 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(epistemological constraints that we place on ‘complexity science’ — and one which complexity researchers may do well to )] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 736.397 577.500 28.698 re W n
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 15.000 745.137 Td /F2 21.0 Tf [(The theory of complex phenomena)] TJ ET
Q
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 15.000 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(June 30, 2007)] TJ ET
BT 74.846 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(·)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 79.721 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(Classic Paper)] TJ ET
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 715.290 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Friedrich A. von Hayek)] TJ ET
BT 124.862 715.290 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(, )] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 130.283 715.290 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Friedrich Hayek)] TJ ET
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 703.386 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(von Hayek FA, Hayek F. The theory of complex phenomena. Emergence: Complexity and Organization. 2007 Jun 30 [last )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 691.481 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(modified: 2016 Nov 30]. Edition 1. doi: 10.emerg/10.17357.4e008a2d2e0301f038b838fd03db9d66.)] TJ ET
q
15.000 22.525 577.500 666.575 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 662.378 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Abstract)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 642.424 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 605.822 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Hayek’s)] TJ ET
BT 71.610 605.822 Td /F5 12.0 Tf [(The Theory of Complex Phenomena)] TJ ET
BT 276.318 605.822 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(: A Precocious Play on the Epistemology of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 591.170 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Complexity)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 571.215 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Friedrich Hayek’s )] TJ ET
BT 104.260 571.215 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(The Theory of Complex Phenomena)] TJ ET
BT 261.410 571.215 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( \(Hayek, 1964\) is a precocious and far-sighted attempt to illuminate a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 559.311 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(topic that has loomed increasingly important in the 53 years since the printing of the paper: the epistemology of complexity. It )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 547.406 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(posits a tension between real insight into complex phenomena and a narrow — but, common — interpretation of a Popperian )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 535.501 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(falsificationism, and suggests that we make a ‘hard choice’ — one that subsequent research and philosophical forays into )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 523.596 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity science can be usefully understood as having implicitly made on numerous occasions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 504.192 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Popper suggested )] TJ ET
BT 108.091 504.192 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(actual)] TJ ET
BT 134.105 504.192 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( falsifiability of hypotheses derived from a theory as a criterion of demarcation between scientific and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 492.287 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘metaphysical’ or ‘pseudo-scientific’ theories and of choice among alternative empirical theories \(Popper, 1959\). Thus, the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 480.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘theory’ which states that ‘the orbit of planet Z has the form of a circle, i.e, )] TJ ET
BT 344.353 480.382 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(x)] TJ ET
BT 349.228 484.270 Td /F1 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 354.047 480.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( + )] TJ ET
BT 365.162 480.382 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(y)] TJ ET
BT 370.037 484.270 Td /F1 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 374.856 480.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(=)] TJ ET
BT 380.550 480.382 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(R)] TJ ET
BT 387.589 484.270 Td /F1 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 392.408 480.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(’ is to be preferred \(before testing\) to a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 468.477 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(theory which states that ‘the orbit of planet Z has the form of an ellipse, i.e., )] TJ ET
BT 353.041 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(a)] TJ ET
BT 358.462 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 363.280 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(x)] TJ ET
BT 368.155 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 372.974 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(+b)] TJ ET
BT 384.089 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 388.908 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(y)] TJ ET
BT 393.783 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 398.601 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(=c)] TJ ET
BT 409.170 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 413.989 468.477 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( because it takes fewer points — or, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 456.573 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(measurements \(namely, 3\) to disconfirm the former theory than it takes \(4\) to disconfirm the latter. Popper capitalizes on the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 444.668 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(example to make the point that the \(normative\) emphasis placed by some philosophers of science on simplicity as a criterion for )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 432.763 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(theory choice )] TJ ET
BT 86.944 432.763 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(follows from)] TJ ET
BT 138.950 432.763 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( \(and is therefore not independent of\) a commitment to actual falsifiability.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 413.358 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(This is precisely the point that Hayek focuses on, in reference to ‘complex phenomena’. He sees that the astute researcher of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 401.454 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity faces a hard choice between the ‘point-wise’ testability that Popper takes for granted on the one hand, and insight or )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 389.549 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(understanding on the other — and advocates that the constraints which testability places on theory choice be loosened in favor )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 377.644 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of allowing for more complicated nomological relationships among independent variables, which, in turn, will orient the empiricist )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 365.739 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(away from attempting to predict point events and towards predicting ‘patterns’ or dynamical regimes. This is a precocious and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 353.835 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(far sighted insight, and here is a case in point: Apparently unbeknownst to Hayek \(plausibly so: Hayek finished the paper in )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 341.930 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(1961, two years before the Lorenz paper that kicked off ‘chaos theory’ was published\), chaos theory got off the ground )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 330.025 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(approximately at the same time Hayek was writing his paper, starting from \(Edward\) Lorenz’s startling realization that some )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 318.120 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamical systems \(such as that made up by the coupling between the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations he )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 306.216 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(was trying to solve numerically and the finite-precision arithmetic operations that his computer instantiated\) exhibit highly )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 294.311 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(sensitive dependence of their long-run dynamics on their initial conditions, such that two points in the phase space of the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 282.406 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(system that start out arbitrarily close together will — in the course of the system’s evolution and after an only finite amount of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 270.501 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(time — end up very far apart. ‘Chaos theory’, then, touches reality not by making predictions about point events, but, rather, by )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 258.597 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(specifying dynamical systems and regimes or regions of their parameter spaces that exhibit ‘transition to chaos’ \(Ott, 2002\) — )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 246.692 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(that is, by making predictions about )] TJ ET
BT 181.782 246.692 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(patterns)] TJ ET
BT 217.009 246.692 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( of behavior rather than about highly localized space-time hyper-volumes \(‘points’\) )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 234.787 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of behavior.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 215.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(But, is the development of an empirical chaos theory really a validation of Hayek’s claim that strict falsificationism must be )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 203.478 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(relaxed in order to make progress on a science of complexity? Note, in this regard, that formal languages used for representing )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 191.573 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamical systems \(such as those exhibiting chaotic behavior\) come equipped with highly efficacious state space contraction )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 179.668 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(devices and maneuvers, which collapse half-planes into lines and lines into points. It is, then, possible — by the application of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 167.763 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(such devices — to render predictions about macroscopic patterns and dynamical regimes of behavior into predictions about the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 155.859 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘rate of transition to chaos and boundaries between ordered and disordered behavior, which make possible precisely the kind of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 143.954 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(subsequent ‘point-wise testing’ that Popper is often interpreted as having had in mind. Doing so, however, will presuppose a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 132.049 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(flexibility on the part of the researcher at a level which most social scientists in general and economists trained in the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 120.144 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(neoclassical tradition in particular have to date had little consideration for: the ontological one — a flexibility about the objects in-)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 108.240 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(terms-of-which discourse proceeds. This is something that Hayek glimpses and points the way to his paper, without fully calling )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 96.335 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(out: ‘statistics’ — he argues — cannot be used to teach us much about a population of computers, unless we also have access )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 84.430 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(to the code that runs on them \(Hayek, 1961, )] TJ ET
BT 219.193 84.430 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(ibid)] TJ ET
BT 234.364 84.430 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(.\). Knowledge of the code used to design the computers will not only give us a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 72.525 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(radically different number and set of hypotheses that ‘statistics’ can be used to test, but also, perhaps more importantly, a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 60.621 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(different conceptualization of the ‘computer’ in terms of ‘intentional’ terms \(‘algorithms’\) rather than in terms of causal entities )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 48.716 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(‘electrons and holes’\). And this may be a far more penetrating insight of Hayek’s paper than is the exhortation to loosen the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 36.811 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(epistemological constraints that we place on ‘complexity science’ — and one which complexity researchers may do well to )] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 736.397 577.500 28.698 re W n
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 15.000 745.137 Td /F2 21.0 Tf [(The theory of complex phenomena)] TJ ET
Q
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 15.000 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(June 30, 2007)] TJ ET
BT 74.846 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(·)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 79.721 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(Classic Paper)] TJ ET
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 715.290 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Friedrich A. von Hayek)] TJ ET
BT 124.862 715.290 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(, )] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 130.283 715.290 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Friedrich Hayek)] TJ ET
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 703.386 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(von Hayek FA, Hayek F. The theory of complex phenomena. Emergence: Complexity and Organization. 2007 Jun 30 [last )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 691.481 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(modified: 2016 Nov 30]. Edition 1. doi: 10.emerg/10.17357.4e008a2d2e0301f038b838fd03db9d66.)] TJ ET
q
15.000 22.525 577.500 666.575 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 662.378 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Abstract)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 642.424 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 605.822 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Hayek’s)] TJ ET
BT 71.610 605.822 Td /F5 12.0 Tf [(The Theory of Complex Phenomena)] TJ ET
BT 276.318 605.822 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(: A Precocious Play on the Epistemology of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 591.170 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Complexity)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 571.215 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Friedrich Hayek’s )] TJ ET
BT 104.260 571.215 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(The Theory of Complex Phenomena)] TJ ET
BT 261.410 571.215 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( \(Hayek, 1964\) is a precocious and far-sighted attempt to illuminate a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 559.311 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(topic that has loomed increasingly important in the 53 years since the printing of the paper: the epistemology of complexity. It )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 547.406 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(posits a tension between real insight into complex phenomena and a narrow — but, common — interpretation of a Popperian )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 535.501 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(falsificationism, and suggests that we make a ‘hard choice’ — one that subsequent research and philosophical forays into )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 523.596 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity science can be usefully understood as having implicitly made on numerous occasions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 504.192 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Popper suggested )] TJ ET
BT 108.091 504.192 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(actual)] TJ ET
BT 134.105 504.192 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( falsifiability of hypotheses derived from a theory as a criterion of demarcation between scientific and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 492.287 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘metaphysical’ or ‘pseudo-scientific’ theories and of choice among alternative empirical theories \(Popper, 1959\). Thus, the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 480.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘theory’ which states that ‘the orbit of planet Z has the form of a circle, i.e, )] TJ ET
BT 344.353 480.382 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(x)] TJ ET
BT 349.228 484.270 Td /F1 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 354.047 480.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( + )] TJ ET
BT 365.162 480.382 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(y)] TJ ET
BT 370.037 484.270 Td /F1 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 374.856 480.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(=)] TJ ET
BT 380.550 480.382 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(R)] TJ ET
BT 387.589 484.270 Td /F1 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 392.408 480.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(’ is to be preferred \(before testing\) to a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 468.477 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(theory which states that ‘the orbit of planet Z has the form of an ellipse, i.e., )] TJ ET
BT 353.041 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(a)] TJ ET
BT 358.462 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 363.280 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(x)] TJ ET
BT 368.155 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 372.974 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(+b)] TJ ET
BT 384.089 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 388.908 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(y)] TJ ET
BT 393.783 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 398.601 468.477 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(=c)] TJ ET
BT 409.170 472.366 Td /F6 8.7 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 413.989 468.477 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( because it takes fewer points — or, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 456.573 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(measurements \(namely, 3\) to disconfirm the former theory than it takes \(4\) to disconfirm the latter. Popper capitalizes on the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 444.668 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(example to make the point that the \(normative\) emphasis placed by some philosophers of science on simplicity as a criterion for )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 432.763 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(theory choice )] TJ ET
BT 86.944 432.763 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(follows from)] TJ ET
BT 138.950 432.763 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( \(and is therefore not independent of\) a commitment to actual falsifiability.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 413.358 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(This is precisely the point that Hayek focuses on, in reference to ‘complex phenomena’. He sees that the astute researcher of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 401.454 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity faces a hard choice between the ‘point-wise’ testability that Popper takes for granted on the one hand, and insight or )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 389.549 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(understanding on the other — and advocates that the constraints which testability places on theory choice be loosened in favor )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 377.644 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of allowing for more complicated nomological relationships among independent variables, which, in turn, will orient the empiricist )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 365.739 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(away from attempting to predict point events and towards predicting ‘patterns’ or dynamical regimes. This is a precocious and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 353.835 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(far sighted insight, and here is a case in point: Apparently unbeknownst to Hayek \(plausibly so: Hayek finished the paper in )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 341.930 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(1961, two years before the Lorenz paper that kicked off ‘chaos theory’ was published\), chaos theory got off the ground )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 330.025 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(approximately at the same time Hayek was writing his paper, starting from \(Edward\) Lorenz’s startling realization that some )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 318.120 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamical systems \(such as that made up by the coupling between the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations he )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 306.216 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(was trying to solve numerically and the finite-precision arithmetic operations that his computer instantiated\) exhibit highly )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 294.311 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(sensitive dependence of their long-run dynamics on their initial conditions, such that two points in the phase space of the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 282.406 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(system that start out arbitrarily close together will — in the course of the system’s evolution and after an only finite amount of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 270.501 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(time — end up very far apart. ‘Chaos theory’, then, touches reality not by making predictions about point events, but, rather, by )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 258.597 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(specifying dynamical systems and regimes or regions of their parameter spaces that exhibit ‘transition to chaos’ \(Ott, 2002\) — )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 246.692 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(that is, by making predictions about )] TJ ET
BT 181.782 246.692 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(patterns)] TJ ET
BT 217.009 246.692 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( of behavior rather than about highly localized space-time hyper-volumes \(‘points’\) )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 234.787 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of behavior.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 215.382 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(But, is the development of an empirical chaos theory really a validation of Hayek’s claim that strict falsificationism must be )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 203.478 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(relaxed in order to make progress on a science of complexity? Note, in this regard, that formal languages used for representing )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 191.573 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamical systems \(such as those exhibiting chaotic behavior\) come equipped with highly efficacious state space contraction )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 179.668 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(devices and maneuvers, which collapse half-planes into lines and lines into points. It is, then, possible — by the application of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 167.763 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(such devices — to render predictions about macroscopic patterns and dynamical regimes of behavior into predictions about the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 155.859 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘rate of transition to chaos and boundaries between ordered and disordered behavior, which make possible precisely the kind of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 143.954 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(subsequent ‘point-wise testing’ that Popper is often interpreted as having had in mind. Doing so, however, will presuppose a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 132.049 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(flexibility on the part of the researcher at a level which most social scientists in general and economists trained in the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 120.144 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(neoclassical tradition in particular have to date had little consideration for: the ontological one — a flexibility about the objects in-)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 108.240 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(terms-of-which discourse proceeds. This is something that Hayek glimpses and points the way to his paper, without fully calling )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 96.335 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(out: ‘statistics’ — he argues — cannot be used to teach us much about a population of computers, unless we also have access )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 84.430 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(to the code that runs on them \(Hayek, 1961, )] TJ ET
BT 219.193 84.430 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(ibid)] TJ ET
BT 234.364 84.430 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(.\). Knowledge of the code used to design the computers will not only give us a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 72.525 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(radically different number and set of hypotheses that ‘statistics’ can be used to test, but also, perhaps more importantly, a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 60.621 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(different conceptualization of the ‘computer’ in terms of ‘intentional’ terms \(‘algorithms’\) rather than in terms of causal entities )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 48.716 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(‘electrons and holes’\). And this may be a far more penetrating insight of Hayek’s paper than is the exhortation to loosen the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 36.811 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(epistemological constraints that we place on ‘complexity science’ — and one which complexity researchers may do well to )] TJ ET
Q
q
0.000 0.000 0.000 rg
BT 291.710 19.825 Td /F1 11.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET
BT 25.000 19.825 Td /F1 11.0 Tf [(Emergence: Complexity and Organization)] TJ ET
Q
endstream
endobj
8 0 obj
<< /Type /Font
/Subtype /Type1
/Name /F1
/BaseFont /Helvetica
/Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding
>>
endobj
9 0 obj
<< /Type /Font
/Subtype /Type1
/Name /F2
/BaseFont /Times-Bold
/Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding
>>
endobj
10 0 obj
<< /Type /Font
/Subtype /Type1
/Name /F3
/BaseFont /Times-Italic
/Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding
>>
endobj
11 0 obj
<< /Type /Font
/Subtype /Type1
/Name /F4
/BaseFont /Helvetica-Bold
/Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding
>>
endobj
12 0 obj
<< /Type /Font
/Subtype /Type1
/Name /F5
/BaseFont /Helvetica-BoldOblique
/Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding
>>
endobj
13 0 obj
<< /Type /Font
/Subtype /Type1
/Name /F6
/BaseFont /Helvetica-Oblique
/Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding
>>
endobj
14 0 obj
<< /Type /Annot
/Subtype /Link
/A 15 0 R
/Border [0 0 0]
/H /I
/Rect [ 15.0000 743.2468 325.3170 764.0368 ]
>>
endobj
15 0 obj
<< /Type /Action
/S /URI
/URI (https://journal.emergentpublications.com/article/the-theory-of-complex-phenomena/)
>>
endobj
16 0 obj
<< /Type /Annot
/Subtype /Link
/A 17 0 R
/Border [0 0 0]
/H /I
/Rect [ 79.7205 726.2533 134.7007 735.9058 ]
>>
endobj
17 0 obj
<< /Type /Action
/S /URI
/URI (https://journal.emergentpublications.com/article_category/classical/)
>>
endobj
18 0 obj
<< /Type /Annot
/Subtype /Link
/A 19 0 R
/Border [0 0 0]
/H /I
/Rect [ 130.2825 714.3886 198.5423 724.3092 ]
>>
endobj
19 0 obj
<< /Type /Action
/S /URI
/URI (https://journal.emergentpublications.com/author/friedrich-hayek/)
>>
endobj
20 0 obj
<< /Type /Annot
/Subtype /Link
/A 21 0 R
/Border [0 0 0]
/H /I
/Rect [ 15.0000 743.2468 325.3170 764.0368 ]
>>
endobj
21 0 obj
<< /Type /Action
/S /URI
/URI (https://journal.emergentpublications.com/article/the-theory-of-complex-phenomena/)
>>
endobj
22 0 obj
<< /Type /Annot
/Subtype /Link
/A 23 0 R
/Border [0 0 0]
/H /I
/Rect [ 79.7205 726.2533 134.7007 735.9058 ]
>>
endobj
23 0 obj
<< /Type /Action
/S /URI
/URI (https://journal.emergentpublications.com/article_category/classical/)
>>
endobj
24 0 obj
<< /Type /Annot
/Subtype /Link
/A 25 0 R
/Border [0 0 0]
/H /I
/Rect [ 130.2825 714.3886 198.5423 724.3092 ]
>>
endobj
25 0 obj
<< /Type /Action
/S /URI
/URI (https://journal.emergentpublications.com/author/friedrich-hayek/)
>>
endobj
26 0 obj
<< /Type /Annot
/Subtype /Link
/A 27 0 R
/Border [0 0 0]
/H /I
/Rect [ 15.0000 743.2468 325.3170 764.0368 ]
>>
endobj
27 0 obj
<< /Type /Action
/S /URI
/URI (https://journal.emergentpublications.com/article/the-theory-of-complex-phenomena/)
>>
endobj
28 0 obj
<< /Type /Annot
/Subtype /Link
/A 29 0 R
/Border [0 0 0]
/H /I
/Rect [ 79.7205 726.2533 134.7007 735.9058 ]
>>
endobj
29 0 obj
<< /Type /Action
/S /URI
/URI (https://journal.emergentpublications.com/article_category/classical/)
>>
endobj
30 0 obj
<< /Type /Annot
/Subtype /Link
/A 31 0 R
/Border [0 0 0]
/H /I
/Rect [ 130.2825 714.3886 198.5423 724.3092 ]
>>
endobj
31 0 obj
<< /Type /Action
/S /URI
/URI (https://journal.emergentpublications.com/author/friedrich-hayek/)
>>
endobj
32 0 obj
<< /Type /Page
/Parent 3 0 R
/Contents 33 0 R
>>
endobj
33 0 obj
<<
/Length 5437 >>
stream
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
q
15.000 523.648 577.500 253.352 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(heed. Should they choose to do so, the black box of human decision making \(mind ? brain ? behavior\) — neatly bracketed in )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(economic analyses by rational choice models and linear demand functions — could be made to yield much illuminating insight )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 743.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(under the gaze of new conceptual toolkits.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 707.064 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 687.110 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Originally published in Hayek, F. A. \(1967\). )] TJ ET
BT 214.279 687.110 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics)] TJ ET
BT 413.149 687.110 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(, London, UK: Routledge & Kegan )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 675.205 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Paul, pp. 22-42. Reproduced by kind permission.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 638.603 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(References)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 611.148 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 611.148 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Hayek, F. \(1961\). “The theory of complex phenomena,” in M. Bunge \(ed.\), The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 599.244 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(ISBN 9780029049204.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 579.839 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 579.839 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Lorenz, E. \(1963\). “Deterministic non-periodic flow,” Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, ISSN0022-4928, 20: 130-141.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 560.434 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 560.434 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Ott, E. \(2002\). Chaos in Dynamical Systems, ISBN 9780521010849.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 541.029 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 541.029 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Popper, K. R. \(1959\). The Logic of Scientific Discovery, ISBN 9780415278447 \(2002\).)] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 523.648 577.500 253.352 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(heed. Should they choose to do so, the black box of human decision making \(mind ? brain ? behavior\) — neatly bracketed in )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(economic analyses by rational choice models and linear demand functions — could be made to yield much illuminating insight )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 743.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(under the gaze of new conceptual toolkits.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 707.064 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 687.110 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Originally published in Hayek, F. A. \(1967\). )] TJ ET
BT 214.279 687.110 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics)] TJ ET
BT 413.149 687.110 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(, London, UK: Routledge & Kegan )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 675.205 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Paul, pp. 22-42. Reproduced by kind permission.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 638.603 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(References)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 611.148 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 611.148 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Hayek, F. \(1961\). “The theory of complex phenomena,” in M. Bunge \(ed.\), The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 599.244 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(ISBN 9780029049204.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 579.839 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 579.839 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Lorenz, E. \(1963\). “Deterministic non-periodic flow,” Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, ISSN0022-4928, 20: 130-141.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 560.434 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 560.434 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Ott, E. \(2002\). Chaos in Dynamical Systems, ISBN 9780521010849.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 541.029 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 541.029 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Popper, K. R. \(1959\). The Logic of Scientific Discovery, ISBN 9780415278447 \(2002\).)] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 523.648 577.500 253.352 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(heed. Should they choose to do so, the black box of human decision making \(mind ? brain ? behavior\) — neatly bracketed in )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(economic analyses by rational choice models and linear demand functions — could be made to yield much illuminating insight )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 743.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(under the gaze of new conceptual toolkits.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 707.064 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 687.110 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Originally published in Hayek, F. A. \(1967\). )] TJ ET
BT 214.279 687.110 Td /F6 9.8 Tf [(Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics)] TJ ET
BT 413.149 687.110 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(, London, UK: Routledge & Kegan )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 675.205 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Paul, pp. 22-42. Reproduced by kind permission.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 638.603 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(References)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 611.148 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 611.148 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Hayek, F. \(1961\). “The theory of complex phenomena,” in M. Bunge \(ed.\), The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 599.244 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(ISBN 9780029049204.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 579.839 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 579.839 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Lorenz, E. \(1963\). “Deterministic non-periodic flow,” Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, ISSN0022-4928, 20: 130-141.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 560.434 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 560.434 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Ott, E. \(2002\). Chaos in Dynamical Systems, ISBN 9780521010849.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 541.029 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 541.029 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Popper, K. R. \(1959\). The Logic of Scientific Discovery, ISBN 9780415278447 \(2002\).)] TJ ET
Q
q
0.000 0.000 0.000 rg
BT 291.710 19.825 Td /F1 11.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 25.000 19.825 Td /F1 11.0 Tf [(Emergence: Complexity and Organization)] TJ ET
Q
endstream
endobj
xref
0 34
0000000000 65535 f
0000000008 00000 n
0000000073 00000 n
0000000119 00000 n
0000000334 00000 n
0000000363 00000 n
0000000559 00000 n
0000000697 00000 n
0000031076 00000 n
0000031183 00000 n
0000031291 00000 n
0000031402 00000 n
0000031515 00000 n
0000031635 00000 n
0000031751 00000 n
0000031878 00000 n
0000032011 00000 n
0000032138 00000 n
0000032258 00000 n
0000032386 00000 n
0000032502 00000 n
0000032629 00000 n
0000032762 00000 n
0000032889 00000 n
0000033009 00000 n
0000033137 00000 n
0000033253 00000 n
0000033380 00000 n
0000033513 00000 n
0000033640 00000 n
0000033760 00000 n
0000033888 00000 n
0000034004 00000 n
0000034069 00000 n
trailer
<<
/Size 34
/Root 1 0 R
/Info 5 0 R
>>
startxref
39559
%%EOF