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BT 227.982 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Emergence: Complexity and Organization. Emergence: Complexity and Organization.)] TJ ET
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BT 15.000 745.137 Td /F2 21.0 Tf [(The practitioner’s landscape)] TJ ET
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BT 15.000 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(June 30, 2004)] TJ ET
BT 74.846 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(·)] TJ ET
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BT 79.721 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(Practitioner)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 715.290 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Glenda Eoyang)] TJ ET
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BT 26.250 703.386 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Eoyang G. The practitioner’s landscape. Emergence: Complexity and Organization. 2004 Jun 30 [last modified: 2016 Nov 22]. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 691.481 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Edition 1. doi: 10.emerg/10.17357.dc611138f48d0dcc2c20847b60b2c399.)] TJ ET
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BT 26.250 662.378 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Abstract)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 642.424 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(An array of complexity-based tools and techniques are available today, but how does the practitioner select a particular )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 630.519 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(approach to respond to a particular need? We present a simple taxonomy to describe the landscape of complexity-derived )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 618.615 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(methods for human systems dynamics. Practitioners can use the landscape to understand the diversity of tools and techniques, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 606.710 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(to foster respect for approaches different from ones’ own, to build an understanding of the field as a whole, and to select specific )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 594.805 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(techniques to apply in specific situations.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 558.203 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(In the beginning…)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 538.248 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(In the 1980s, when some of us first delved into applications of complexity to human systems, there were no preformed models )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 526.344 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(or even solid metaphors to guide us. We dove into the science and mathematics of chaos and complexity, came up gasping for )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 514.439 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(breath, and put together the language, tools, and methods that we thought would be most helpful for ourselves, our colleagues, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 502.534 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and our clients. Though the deserted landscape was lonely and intimidating sometimes, it left us free to explore opportunities )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 490.629 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and to invent tools and techniques to meet the immediate needs as we understood them at the time. It also allowed us to make )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 478.725 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(low-risk mistakes, either in our understanding of the science or in our expectations for its application to real-life human systems. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 466.820 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(We were a creative bunch and generated an endless stream of complexity-based inventions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 430.217 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(A rugged landscape)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 410.263 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Today, the landscape is different. Early adapters and inventors have passed through this territory before. They’ve left a trail of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 398.358 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(methods, models, languages, and expectations that are not always consistent within each approach and certainly not coherent )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 386.454 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(among the various approaches. Each explorer has synthesized his or her experience, theoretical frameworks, and client’s )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 374.549 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(needs to create tools and methods that work in a given time and place. These creations have sometimes taken on lives of their )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 362.644 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(own – being codified and generalized to be applied in multiple situations. What used to be a desert is now a rugged landscape )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 350.739 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of tools and techniques to help apply principles of complexity science to the challenges that plague individuals, institutions, and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 338.835 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(communities today. This emerging landscape of human systems dynamics tools and techniques includes:)] TJ ET
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48.078 310.941 48.522 311.125 48.838 311.441 c
49.154 311.757 49.337 312.201 49.337 312.648 c f
BT 54.750 309.680 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(15% Solution \(Morgan, 1997\))] TJ ET
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47.185 291.199 46.741 291.015 46.425 290.699 c
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48.078 287.787 48.522 287.970 48.838 288.286 c
49.154 288.602 49.337 289.046 49.337 289.493 c f
BT 54.750 286.525 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Complex responsive processes \(Stacey, 2001\))] TJ ET
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48.078 264.632 48.522 264.816 48.838 265.131 c
49.154 265.447 49.337 265.891 49.337 266.338 c f
BT 54.750 263.370 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Self-organizing leadership \(Knowles, 2002\))] TJ ET
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47.185 244.890 46.741 244.706 46.425 244.390 c
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48.078 241.477 48.522 241.661 48.838 241.977 c
49.154 242.293 49.337 242.737 49.337 243.183 c f
BT 54.750 240.216 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Difference questioning \(Goldstein, 1994\))] TJ ET
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47.185 221.735 46.741 221.551 46.425 221.235 c
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49.154 219.138 49.337 219.582 49.337 220.029 c f
BT 54.750 217.061 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Metaphorical landscapes \(Lissack & Roos, 1999\))] TJ ET
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BT 54.750 193.906 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Difference Matrix \(Olson & Eoyang, 2001\))] TJ ET
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49.154 172.828 49.337 173.272 49.337 173.719 c f
BT 54.750 170.751 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Generative Relationship STAR \(Zimmerman, )] TJ ET
BT 250.881 170.751 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET
BT 272.019 170.751 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(, 2001\))] TJ ET
BT 26.250 128.847 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(And many, many more.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 92.244 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Making sense of the pattern)] TJ ET
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BT 15.000 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(June 30, 2004)] TJ ET
BT 74.846 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(·)] TJ ET
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BT 79.721 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(Practitioner)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 715.290 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Glenda Eoyang)] TJ ET
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BT 26.250 703.386 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Eoyang G. The practitioner’s landscape. Emergence: Complexity and Organization. 2004 Jun 30 [last modified: 2016 Nov 22]. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 691.481 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Edition 1. doi: 10.emerg/10.17357.dc611138f48d0dcc2c20847b60b2c399.)] TJ ET
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BT 26.250 662.378 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Abstract)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 642.424 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(An array of complexity-based tools and techniques are available today, but how does the practitioner select a particular )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 630.519 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(approach to respond to a particular need? We present a simple taxonomy to describe the landscape of complexity-derived )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 618.615 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(methods for human systems dynamics. Practitioners can use the landscape to understand the diversity of tools and techniques, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 606.710 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(to foster respect for approaches different from ones’ own, to build an understanding of the field as a whole, and to select specific )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 594.805 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(techniques to apply in specific situations.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 558.203 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(In the beginning…)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 538.248 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(In the 1980s, when some of us first delved into applications of complexity to human systems, there were no preformed models )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 526.344 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(or even solid metaphors to guide us. We dove into the science and mathematics of chaos and complexity, came up gasping for )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 514.439 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(breath, and put together the language, tools, and methods that we thought would be most helpful for ourselves, our colleagues, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 502.534 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and our clients. Though the deserted landscape was lonely and intimidating sometimes, it left us free to explore opportunities )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 490.629 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and to invent tools and techniques to meet the immediate needs as we understood them at the time. It also allowed us to make )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 478.725 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(low-risk mistakes, either in our understanding of the science or in our expectations for its application to real-life human systems. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 466.820 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(We were a creative bunch and generated an endless stream of complexity-based inventions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 430.217 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(A rugged landscape)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 410.263 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Today, the landscape is different. Early adapters and inventors have passed through this territory before. They’ve left a trail of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 398.358 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(methods, models, languages, and expectations that are not always consistent within each approach and certainly not coherent )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 386.454 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(among the various approaches. Each explorer has synthesized his or her experience, theoretical frameworks, and client’s )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 374.549 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(needs to create tools and methods that work in a given time and place. These creations have sometimes taken on lives of their )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 362.644 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(own – being codified and generalized to be applied in multiple situations. What used to be a desert is now a rugged landscape )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 350.739 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of tools and techniques to help apply principles of complexity science to the challenges that plague individuals, institutions, and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 338.835 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(communities today. This emerging landscape of human systems dynamics tools and techniques includes:)] TJ ET
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0.267 0.267 0.267 RG
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49.337 312.648 m
49.337 313.094 49.154 313.538 48.838 313.854 c
48.522 314.170 48.078 314.354 47.631 314.354 c
47.185 314.354 46.741 314.170 46.425 313.854 c
46.109 313.538 45.925 313.094 45.925 312.648 c
45.925 312.201 46.109 311.757 46.425 311.441 c
46.741 311.125 47.185 310.941 47.631 310.941 c
48.078 310.941 48.522 311.125 48.838 311.441 c
49.154 311.757 49.337 312.201 49.337 312.648 c f
BT 54.750 309.680 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(15% Solution \(Morgan, 1997\))] TJ ET
49.337 289.493 m
49.337 289.939 49.154 290.383 48.838 290.699 c
48.522 291.015 48.078 291.199 47.631 291.199 c
47.185 291.199 46.741 291.015 46.425 290.699 c
46.109 290.383 45.925 289.939 45.925 289.493 c
45.925 289.046 46.109 288.602 46.425 288.286 c
46.741 287.970 47.185 287.787 47.631 287.787 c
48.078 287.787 48.522 287.970 48.838 288.286 c
49.154 288.602 49.337 289.046 49.337 289.493 c f
BT 54.750 286.525 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Complex responsive processes \(Stacey, 2001\))] TJ ET
49.337 266.338 m
49.337 266.785 49.154 267.229 48.838 267.545 c
48.522 267.860 48.078 268.044 47.631 268.044 c
47.185 268.044 46.741 267.860 46.425 267.545 c
46.109 267.229 45.925 266.785 45.925 266.338 c
45.925 265.891 46.109 265.447 46.425 265.131 c
46.741 264.816 47.185 264.632 47.631 264.632 c
48.078 264.632 48.522 264.816 48.838 265.131 c
49.154 265.447 49.337 265.891 49.337 266.338 c f
BT 54.750 263.370 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Self-organizing leadership \(Knowles, 2002\))] TJ ET
49.337 243.183 m
49.337 243.630 49.154 244.074 48.838 244.390 c
48.522 244.706 48.078 244.890 47.631 244.890 c
47.185 244.890 46.741 244.706 46.425 244.390 c
46.109 244.074 45.925 243.630 45.925 243.183 c
45.925 242.737 46.109 242.293 46.425 241.977 c
46.741 241.661 47.185 241.477 47.631 241.477 c
48.078 241.477 48.522 241.661 48.838 241.977 c
49.154 242.293 49.337 242.737 49.337 243.183 c f
BT 54.750 240.216 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Difference questioning \(Goldstein, 1994\))] TJ ET
49.337 220.029 m
49.337 220.475 49.154 220.919 48.838 221.235 c
48.522 221.551 48.078 221.735 47.631 221.735 c
47.185 221.735 46.741 221.551 46.425 221.235 c
46.109 220.919 45.925 220.475 45.925 220.029 c
45.925 219.582 46.109 219.138 46.425 218.822 c
46.741 218.506 47.185 218.322 47.631 218.322 c
48.078 218.322 48.522 218.506 48.838 218.822 c
49.154 219.138 49.337 219.582 49.337 220.029 c f
BT 54.750 217.061 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Metaphorical landscapes \(Lissack & Roos, 1999\))] TJ ET
49.337 196.874 m
49.337 197.320 49.154 197.764 48.838 198.080 c
48.522 198.396 48.078 198.580 47.631 198.580 c
47.185 198.580 46.741 198.396 46.425 198.080 c
46.109 197.764 45.925 197.320 45.925 196.874 c
45.925 196.427 46.109 195.983 46.425 195.667 c
46.741 195.351 47.185 195.168 47.631 195.168 c
48.078 195.168 48.522 195.351 48.838 195.667 c
49.154 195.983 49.337 196.427 49.337 196.874 c f
BT 54.750 193.906 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Difference Matrix \(Olson & Eoyang, 2001\))] TJ ET
49.337 173.719 m
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48.522 175.241 48.078 175.425 47.631 175.425 c
47.185 175.425 46.741 175.241 46.425 174.926 c
46.109 174.610 45.925 174.166 45.925 173.719 c
45.925 173.272 46.109 172.828 46.425 172.512 c
46.741 172.197 47.185 172.013 47.631 172.013 c
48.078 172.013 48.522 172.197 48.838 172.512 c
49.154 172.828 49.337 173.272 49.337 173.719 c f
BT 54.750 170.751 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Generative Relationship STAR \(Zimmerman, )] TJ ET
BT 250.881 170.751 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET
BT 272.019 170.751 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(, 2001\))] TJ ET
BT 26.250 128.847 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(And many, many more.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 92.244 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Making sense of the pattern)] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 736.397 577.500 28.698 re W n
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 15.000 745.137 Td /F2 21.0 Tf [(The practitioner’s landscape)] TJ ET
Q
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 15.000 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(June 30, 2004)] TJ ET
BT 74.846 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(·)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 79.721 727.131 Td /F3 9.8 Tf [(Practitioner)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 715.290 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Glenda Eoyang)] TJ ET
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 703.386 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Eoyang G. The practitioner’s landscape. Emergence: Complexity and Organization. 2004 Jun 30 [last modified: 2016 Nov 22]. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 691.481 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Edition 1. doi: 10.emerg/10.17357.dc611138f48d0dcc2c20847b60b2c399.)] TJ ET
q
15.000 26.695 577.500 662.405 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 662.378 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Abstract)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 642.424 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(An array of complexity-based tools and techniques are available today, but how does the practitioner select a particular )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 630.519 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(approach to respond to a particular need? We present a simple taxonomy to describe the landscape of complexity-derived )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 618.615 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(methods for human systems dynamics. Practitioners can use the landscape to understand the diversity of tools and techniques, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 606.710 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(to foster respect for approaches different from ones’ own, to build an understanding of the field as a whole, and to select specific )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 594.805 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(techniques to apply in specific situations.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 558.203 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(In the beginning…)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 538.248 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(In the 1980s, when some of us first delved into applications of complexity to human systems, there were no preformed models )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 526.344 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(or even solid metaphors to guide us. We dove into the science and mathematics of chaos and complexity, came up gasping for )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 514.439 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(breath, and put together the language, tools, and methods that we thought would be most helpful for ourselves, our colleagues, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 502.534 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and our clients. Though the deserted landscape was lonely and intimidating sometimes, it left us free to explore opportunities )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 490.629 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and to invent tools and techniques to meet the immediate needs as we understood them at the time. It also allowed us to make )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 478.725 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(low-risk mistakes, either in our understanding of the science or in our expectations for its application to real-life human systems. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 466.820 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(We were a creative bunch and generated an endless stream of complexity-based inventions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 430.217 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(A rugged landscape)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 410.263 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Today, the landscape is different. Early adapters and inventors have passed through this territory before. They’ve left a trail of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 398.358 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(methods, models, languages, and expectations that are not always consistent within each approach and certainly not coherent )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 386.454 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(among the various approaches. Each explorer has synthesized his or her experience, theoretical frameworks, and client’s )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 374.549 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(needs to create tools and methods that work in a given time and place. These creations have sometimes taken on lives of their )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 362.644 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(own – being codified and generalized to be applied in multiple situations. What used to be a desert is now a rugged landscape )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 350.739 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of tools and techniques to help apply principles of complexity science to the challenges that plague individuals, institutions, and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 338.835 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(communities today. This emerging landscape of human systems dynamics tools and techniques includes:)] TJ ET
0.965 0.965 0.965 rg
26.250 145.871 555.000 183.083 re f
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BT 344.960 276.920 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(accessible to )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 269.289 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(influence.Computer )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 261.658 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Simulation Models)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
451.413 317.300 120.462 0.750 re f
451.413 240.369 120.462 0.750 re f
451.413 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
571.125 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 456.663 307.445 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Use mathematical tools )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 299.814 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(to discover subtle )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 292.183 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structures in complex )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 284.551 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 276.920 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems.Nonlinear Time )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 269.289 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Series Modeling)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 181.720 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(practitioner learns where the challenge lies in relation to these three broad phenomenological categories. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 169.815 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Phenomena category 1: Surface structures.)] TJ ET
BT 227.812 169.815 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( In some situations, the client invites the consultant to deal with patterns that are )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 157.911 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(evident to any observer. Interpersonal conflicts, lagging sales, customer dissatisfaction are examples of patterns that arise in )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 146.006 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(such surface structures. They are immediately evident to observers of and participants in the human system. We call these )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 134.101 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘surface structures’ because they are patterns that emerge in the most evident facets of our human systems.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 114.696 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Phenomena category 2: Evident deep structures.)] TJ ET
BT 252.733 114.696 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Other times, the presenting problem is opaque to the client. He or she )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 102.792 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(describes a sense of discomfort with people or dissatisfaction with processes and products. Though the pattern may not be )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 90.887 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(evident to the client, the tools and discipline of a human systems dynamics professional allow the practitioner to discern and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 78.982 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(describe the patterns in ways that the client understands and recognizes as accurate. We call these ‘evident deep structures’. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 67.077 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(These patterns emerge from dynamics embedded deep within the system, but they become evident through applications of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 55.173 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(fairly accessible tools and techniques.)] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 45.292 577.500 731.708 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The accumulation of complexity-based techniques makes it possible for practitioners to address the complex adaptive nature of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human systems without a deep understanding of the nonlinear dynamics that drive emergent patterns of behavior. More people )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 743.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(can use dynamical approaches to increase the power and \(usually\) the efficacy of their interventions. On the other hand, the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 731.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(library of powerful tools can quickly become a graveyard of irrelevant approaches.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 712.357 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Given this complex, rugged landscape of complexity-related tools and techniques, how does a practitioner select which of the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 700.452 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(many complexity-based tools to use in a particular situation?)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 663.850 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Differences that make a difference)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 643.896 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(We propose a two-dimensional, twelve category classification system that represents the landscape of the work of practitioners )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 631.991 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(in human systems dynamics.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 612.586 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(This approach clusters available tools and techniques into groups to help a practitioner think about the many options and select )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 600.681 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the approach that constitutes a ‘best fit’ for a given consulting challenge. This taxonomy is based on the two fundamental )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 588.777 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘differences that make a difference’ to practitioners when they engage with client systems to recognize and influence emergent )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 576.872 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns of complex dynamical interactions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 557.467 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The first dimension deals with the phenomenon of interest. How are the relevant patterns exhibited in the situation? Of course a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 545.562 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(conversation between client and consultant is required to determine the relevant patterns. During this conversation the)] TJ ET
0.965 0.965 0.965 rg
26.250 198.744 555.000 336.938 re f
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
0.267 0.267 0.267 RG
26.250 535.681 m 581.250 535.681 l 581.250 534.931 l 26.250 534.931 l f
26.250 198.744 m 581.250 198.744 l 581.250 199.494 l 26.250 199.494 l f
q
35.250 512.195 537.000 13.736 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 35.250 514.942 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Table 1)] TJ ET
Q
0.965 0.965 0.965 rg
35.250 488.788 537.000 23.408 re f
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
0.267 0.267 0.267 RG
35.250 512.195 m 572.250 512.195 l 571.500 511.445 l 36.000 511.445 l f
572.250 512.195 m 572.250 488.788 l 571.500 488.788 l 571.500 511.445 l f
35.250 512.195 m 35.250 488.788 l 36.000 488.788 l 36.000 511.445 l f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 42.000 498.119 Td /F1 9.0 Tf [(Human systems dynamics: The practice landscape)] TJ ET
1.000 1.000 1.000 rg
35.250 239.994 537.000 248.794 re f
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
35.625 487.663 95.348 0.750 re f
130.973 487.663 90.836 0.750 re f
221.808 487.663 118.276 0.750 re f
340.085 487.663 111.703 0.750 re f
451.788 487.663 120.087 0.750 re f
35.625 471.781 0.750 16.631 re f
571.125 471.781 0.750 16.631 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 40.875 477.808 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Tools for understanding and Intervention)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
35.625 471.781 95.723 0.750 re f
35.625 455.900 0.750 16.631 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 40.875 461.926 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Phenomena)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
130.598 471.781 91.586 0.750 re f
130.598 455.900 0.750 16.631 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 135.848 461.926 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Practice)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
221.433 471.781 119.026 0.750 re f
221.433 455.900 0.750 16.631 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 226.683 461.926 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Weak metaphors)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
339.710 471.781 112.453 0.750 re f
339.710 455.900 0.750 16.631 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 344.960 461.926 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Strong metaphors)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
451.413 471.781 120.462 0.750 re f
451.413 455.900 0.750 16.631 re f
571.125 455.900 0.750 16.631 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 456.663 461.926 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Mathematics)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
35.625 455.900 95.723 0.750 re f
35.625 394.231 0.750 62.419 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 40.875 446.045 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Surface )] TJ ET
BT 40.875 438.414 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structuresExample)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
130.598 455.900 91.586 0.750 re f
130.598 394.231 0.750 62.419 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 135.848 446.045 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Act in response to )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 438.414 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the surface )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 430.783 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structures of )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 423.151 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human systems )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 415.520 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics.15% )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 407.889 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Solution)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
221.433 455.900 119.026 0.750 re f
221.433 394.231 0.750 62.419 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 226.683 446.045 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Describe patterns that )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 438.414 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(emerge in human )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 430.783 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems with metaphors )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 423.151 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(drawn from complexity )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 415.520 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(sciences.Butterfly )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 407.889 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Effects)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
339.710 455.900 112.453 0.750 re f
339.710 394.231 0.750 62.419 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 344.960 446.045 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Intervene using tools )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 438.414 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(derived from )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 430.783 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity to influence )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 423.151 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the surface structures )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 415.520 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of human )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 407.889 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems.Coupling)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
451.413 455.900 120.462 0.750 re f
451.413 394.231 0.750 62.419 re f
571.125 394.231 0.750 62.419 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 456.663 446.045 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Represent complex )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 438.414 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(relationships among )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 430.783 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(variables of the surface )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 423.151 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics of complex )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 415.520 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 407.889 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems.Balanced )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 400.258 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Scorecard)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
35.625 394.231 95.723 0.750 re f
35.625 317.300 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 40.875 384.376 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Evident deep )] TJ ET
BT 40.875 376.745 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structuresExample)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
130.598 394.231 91.586 0.750 re f
130.598 317.300 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 135.848 384.376 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Act in response to )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 376.745 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the deep )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 369.114 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structures of )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 361.483 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human systems )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 353.851 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics that are )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 346.220 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(evident when I )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 338.589 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(know where and )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 330.958 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(how to )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 323.326 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(look.Reflection)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
221.433 394.231 119.026 0.750 re f
221.433 317.300 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 226.683 384.376 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Describe subtle )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 376.745 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structures that shape )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 369.114 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human system )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 361.483 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics using )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 353.851 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 346.220 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(metaphors.Attractors)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
339.710 394.231 112.453 0.750 re f
339.710 317.300 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 344.960 384.376 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Influence the self-)] TJ ET
BT 344.960 376.745 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(organizing process in )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 369.114 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human systems by )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 361.483 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(shifting the nonlinear )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 353.851 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics that are )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 346.220 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(visible.Future Search)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
451.413 394.231 120.462 0.750 re f
451.413 317.300 0.750 77.681 re f
571.125 317.300 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 456.663 384.376 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Represent the more )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 376.745 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(subtle nonlinear )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 369.114 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics of human )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 361.483 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems using tools of )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 353.851 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(mathematics.Network )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 346.220 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Analysis)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
35.625 317.300 95.723 0.750 re f
35.625 240.369 95.723 0.750 re f
35.625 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 40.875 307.445 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Subtle deep )] TJ ET
BT 40.875 299.814 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structuresExample)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
130.598 317.300 91.586 0.750 re f
130.598 240.369 91.586 0.750 re f
130.598 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 135.848 307.445 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Act in response to )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 299.814 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structures that )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 292.183 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(are so deep )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 284.551 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(within the )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 276.920 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(nonlinear )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 269.289 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics that I )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 261.658 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(am unaware of )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 254.026 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(what the patterns )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 246.395 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(are.Intuition)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
221.433 317.300 119.026 0.750 re f
221.433 240.369 119.026 0.750 re f
221.433 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 226.683 307.445 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Support a system as it )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 299.814 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(describes for itself the )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 292.183 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(nonlinear dynamics that )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 284.551 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(drive its tensions, )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 276.920 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(productivity, and )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 269.289 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(history.Open Space )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 261.658 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Technology)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
339.710 317.300 112.453 0.750 re f
339.710 240.369 112.453 0.750 re f
339.710 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 344.960 307.445 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Represent the system )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 299.814 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics so that the )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 292.183 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(subtle deep patterns )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 284.551 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(are visible and )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 276.920 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(accessible to )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 269.289 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(influence.Computer )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 261.658 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Simulation Models)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
451.413 317.300 120.462 0.750 re f
451.413 240.369 120.462 0.750 re f
451.413 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
571.125 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 456.663 307.445 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Use mathematical tools )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 299.814 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(to discover subtle )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 292.183 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structures in complex )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 284.551 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 276.920 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems.Nonlinear Time )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 269.289 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Series Modeling)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 181.720 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(practitioner learns where the challenge lies in relation to these three broad phenomenological categories. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 169.815 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Phenomena category 1: Surface structures.)] TJ ET
BT 227.812 169.815 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( In some situations, the client invites the consultant to deal with patterns that are )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 157.911 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(evident to any observer. Interpersonal conflicts, lagging sales, customer dissatisfaction are examples of patterns that arise in )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 146.006 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(such surface structures. They are immediately evident to observers of and participants in the human system. We call these )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 134.101 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘surface structures’ because they are patterns that emerge in the most evident facets of our human systems.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 114.696 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Phenomena category 2: Evident deep structures.)] TJ ET
BT 252.733 114.696 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Other times, the presenting problem is opaque to the client. He or she )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 102.792 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(describes a sense of discomfort with people or dissatisfaction with processes and products. Though the pattern may not be )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 90.887 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(evident to the client, the tools and discipline of a human systems dynamics professional allow the practitioner to discern and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 78.982 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(describe the patterns in ways that the client understands and recognizes as accurate. We call these ‘evident deep structures’. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 67.077 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(These patterns emerge from dynamics embedded deep within the system, but they become evident through applications of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 55.173 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(fairly accessible tools and techniques.)] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 45.292 577.500 731.708 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The accumulation of complexity-based techniques makes it possible for practitioners to address the complex adaptive nature of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human systems without a deep understanding of the nonlinear dynamics that drive emergent patterns of behavior. More people )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 743.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(can use dynamical approaches to increase the power and \(usually\) the efficacy of their interventions. On the other hand, the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 731.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(library of powerful tools can quickly become a graveyard of irrelevant approaches.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 712.357 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Given this complex, rugged landscape of complexity-related tools and techniques, how does a practitioner select which of the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 700.452 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(many complexity-based tools to use in a particular situation?)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 663.850 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Differences that make a difference)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 643.896 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(We propose a two-dimensional, twelve category classification system that represents the landscape of the work of practitioners )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 631.991 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(in human systems dynamics.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 612.586 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(This approach clusters available tools and techniques into groups to help a practitioner think about the many options and select )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 600.681 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the approach that constitutes a ‘best fit’ for a given consulting challenge. This taxonomy is based on the two fundamental )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 588.777 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘differences that make a difference’ to practitioners when they engage with client systems to recognize and influence emergent )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 576.872 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns of complex dynamical interactions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 557.467 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The first dimension deals with the phenomenon of interest. How are the relevant patterns exhibited in the situation? Of course a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 545.562 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(conversation between client and consultant is required to determine the relevant patterns. During this conversation the)] TJ ET
0.965 0.965 0.965 rg
26.250 198.744 555.000 336.938 re f
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
0.267 0.267 0.267 RG
26.250 535.681 m 581.250 535.681 l 581.250 534.931 l 26.250 534.931 l f
26.250 198.744 m 581.250 198.744 l 581.250 199.494 l 26.250 199.494 l f
q
35.250 512.195 537.000 13.736 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 35.250 514.942 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Table 1)] TJ ET
Q
0.965 0.965 0.965 rg
35.250 488.788 537.000 23.408 re f
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
0.267 0.267 0.267 RG
35.250 512.195 m 572.250 512.195 l 571.500 511.445 l 36.000 511.445 l f
572.250 512.195 m 572.250 488.788 l 571.500 488.788 l 571.500 511.445 l f
35.250 512.195 m 35.250 488.788 l 36.000 488.788 l 36.000 511.445 l f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 42.000 498.119 Td /F1 9.0 Tf [(Human systems dynamics: The practice landscape)] TJ ET
1.000 1.000 1.000 rg
35.250 239.994 537.000 248.794 re f
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
35.625 487.663 95.348 0.750 re f
130.973 487.663 90.836 0.750 re f
221.808 487.663 118.276 0.750 re f
340.085 487.663 111.703 0.750 re f
451.788 487.663 120.087 0.750 re f
35.625 471.781 0.750 16.631 re f
571.125 471.781 0.750 16.631 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 40.875 477.808 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Tools for understanding and Intervention)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
35.625 471.781 95.723 0.750 re f
35.625 455.900 0.750 16.631 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 40.875 461.926 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Phenomena)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
130.598 471.781 91.586 0.750 re f
130.598 455.900 0.750 16.631 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 135.848 461.926 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Practice)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
221.433 471.781 119.026 0.750 re f
221.433 455.900 0.750 16.631 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 226.683 461.926 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Weak metaphors)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
339.710 471.781 112.453 0.750 re f
339.710 455.900 0.750 16.631 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 344.960 461.926 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Strong metaphors)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
451.413 471.781 120.462 0.750 re f
451.413 455.900 0.750 16.631 re f
571.125 455.900 0.750 16.631 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 456.663 461.926 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Mathematics)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
35.625 455.900 95.723 0.750 re f
35.625 394.231 0.750 62.419 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 40.875 446.045 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Surface )] TJ ET
BT 40.875 438.414 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structuresExample)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
130.598 455.900 91.586 0.750 re f
130.598 394.231 0.750 62.419 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 135.848 446.045 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Act in response to )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 438.414 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the surface )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 430.783 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structures of )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 423.151 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human systems )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 415.520 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics.15% )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 407.889 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Solution)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
221.433 455.900 119.026 0.750 re f
221.433 394.231 0.750 62.419 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 226.683 446.045 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Describe patterns that )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 438.414 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(emerge in human )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 430.783 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems with metaphors )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 423.151 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(drawn from complexity )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 415.520 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(sciences.Butterfly )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 407.889 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Effects)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
339.710 455.900 112.453 0.750 re f
339.710 394.231 0.750 62.419 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 344.960 446.045 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Intervene using tools )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 438.414 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(derived from )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 430.783 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity to influence )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 423.151 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the surface structures )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 415.520 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of human )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 407.889 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems.Coupling)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
451.413 455.900 120.462 0.750 re f
451.413 394.231 0.750 62.419 re f
571.125 394.231 0.750 62.419 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 456.663 446.045 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Represent complex )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 438.414 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(relationships among )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 430.783 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(variables of the surface )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 423.151 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics of complex )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 415.520 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 407.889 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems.Balanced )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 400.258 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Scorecard)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
35.625 394.231 95.723 0.750 re f
35.625 317.300 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 40.875 384.376 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Evident deep )] TJ ET
BT 40.875 376.745 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structuresExample)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
130.598 394.231 91.586 0.750 re f
130.598 317.300 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 135.848 384.376 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Act in response to )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 376.745 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the deep )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 369.114 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structures of )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 361.483 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human systems )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 353.851 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics that are )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 346.220 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(evident when I )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 338.589 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(know where and )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 330.958 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(how to )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 323.326 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(look.Reflection)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
221.433 394.231 119.026 0.750 re f
221.433 317.300 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 226.683 384.376 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Describe subtle )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 376.745 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structures that shape )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 369.114 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human system )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 361.483 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics using )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 353.851 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 346.220 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(metaphors.Attractors)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
339.710 394.231 112.453 0.750 re f
339.710 317.300 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 344.960 384.376 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Influence the self-)] TJ ET
BT 344.960 376.745 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(organizing process in )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 369.114 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human systems by )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 361.483 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(shifting the nonlinear )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 353.851 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics that are )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 346.220 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(visible.Future Search)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
451.413 394.231 120.462 0.750 re f
451.413 317.300 0.750 77.681 re f
571.125 317.300 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 456.663 384.376 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Represent the more )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 376.745 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(subtle nonlinear )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 369.114 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics of human )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 361.483 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems using tools of )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 353.851 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(mathematics.Network )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 346.220 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Analysis)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
35.625 317.300 95.723 0.750 re f
35.625 240.369 95.723 0.750 re f
35.625 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 40.875 307.445 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Subtle deep )] TJ ET
BT 40.875 299.814 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structuresExample)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
130.598 317.300 91.586 0.750 re f
130.598 240.369 91.586 0.750 re f
130.598 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 135.848 307.445 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Act in response to )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 299.814 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structures that )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 292.183 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(are so deep )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 284.551 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(within the )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 276.920 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(nonlinear )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 269.289 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics that I )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 261.658 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(am unaware of )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 254.026 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(what the patterns )] TJ ET
BT 135.848 246.395 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(are.Intuition)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
221.433 317.300 119.026 0.750 re f
221.433 240.369 119.026 0.750 re f
221.433 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 226.683 307.445 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Support a system as it )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 299.814 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(describes for itself the )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 292.183 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(nonlinear dynamics that )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 284.551 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(drive its tensions, )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 276.920 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(productivity, and )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 269.289 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(history.Open Space )] TJ ET
BT 226.683 261.658 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Technology)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
339.710 317.300 112.453 0.750 re f
339.710 240.369 112.453 0.750 re f
339.710 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 344.960 307.445 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Represent the system )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 299.814 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics so that the )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 292.183 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(subtle deep patterns )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 284.551 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(are visible and )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 276.920 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(accessible to )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 269.289 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(influence.Computer )] TJ ET
BT 344.960 261.658 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Simulation Models)] TJ ET
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
451.413 317.300 120.462 0.750 re f
451.413 240.369 120.462 0.750 re f
451.413 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
571.125 240.369 0.750 77.681 re f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 456.663 307.445 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Use mathematical tools )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 299.814 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(to discover subtle )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 292.183 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(structures in complex )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 284.551 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 276.920 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems.Nonlinear Time )] TJ ET
BT 456.663 269.289 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Series Modeling)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 181.720 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(practitioner learns where the challenge lies in relation to these three broad phenomenological categories. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 169.815 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Phenomena category 1: Surface structures.)] TJ ET
BT 227.812 169.815 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( In some situations, the client invites the consultant to deal with patterns that are )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 157.911 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(evident to any observer. Interpersonal conflicts, lagging sales, customer dissatisfaction are examples of patterns that arise in )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 146.006 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(such surface structures. They are immediately evident to observers of and participants in the human system. We call these )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 134.101 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘surface structures’ because they are patterns that emerge in the most evident facets of our human systems.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 114.696 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Phenomena category 2: Evident deep structures.)] TJ ET
BT 252.733 114.696 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Other times, the presenting problem is opaque to the client. He or she )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 102.792 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(describes a sense of discomfort with people or dissatisfaction with processes and products. Though the pattern may not be )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 90.887 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(evident to the client, the tools and discipline of a human systems dynamics professional allow the practitioner to discern and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 78.982 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(describe the patterns in ways that the client understands and recognizes as accurate. We call these ‘evident deep structures’. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 67.077 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(These patterns emerge from dynamics embedded deep within the system, but they become evident through applications of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 55.173 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(fairly accessible tools and techniques.)] TJ ET
Q
q
0.000 0.000 0.000 rg
BT 291.710 19.825 Td /F1 11.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET
BT 25.000 19.825 Td /F1 11.0 Tf [(Emergence: Complexity and Organization)] TJ ET
Q
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15.000 29.491 577.500 747.509 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Phenomena category 3: Subtle deep structures.)] TJ ET
BT 247.312 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Finally, some situations exhibit emergent patterns that are both subtle and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(deep. Neither the client’s native instincts nor the tools that function as simple cognitive filters can articulate a coherent pattern of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 743.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(relationships in the complex dynamics of the system. The complexity of these situations transcends the capacity of one level of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 731.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity tool and demands more subtle and/or complicated methods and models. Hospital error rates and other complex )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 719.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(phenomena where data points are distributed across time \(e.g., 1/)] TJ ET
BT 310.219 719.857 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(f)] TJ ET
BT 312.929 719.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( ‘pink’ noise phenomena\) are examples of deep structural )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 707.952 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns that require more subtle analysis techniques.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 688.548 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Each of these levels of subtly and depth requires a different set of complexity tools and techniques, and an adept practitioner )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 676.643 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(will be able to assess the environment and select approaches that fit the phenomena of interest and the complexity of the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 664.738 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns emergent in the client system.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 645.333 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The second dimension that defines the categories of the Practice Landscape deals not with the situation itself but with the tools )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 633.429 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(that are chosen for understanding and intervention. In short, these are ways that the situation can be represented by the client )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 621.524 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and the consultant. They are epistemological distinctions, and they determine how the team thinks and talks about the patterns )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 609.619 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(that emerge from the dynamics of the situation. We define four different categories along a continuum from least abstract )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 597.714 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(practice\) to most abstract \(mathematics\) tools for understanding and intervention. The four are described below.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 578.310 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Tools category 1: Practice.)] TJ ET
BT 150.338 578.310 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( It is possible to respond to quite complex dynamics immediately – without aid of language or )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 566.405 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(conscious analysis. Some complexity-based approaches are defined to support just such practice-oriented response. Many )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 554.500 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(clients are perfectly satisfied with options for action that do not come along with complicated explanations, strange language, or )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 542.595 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(sophisticated justifications. They ask, “Did it work?” If the answer is, “Yes,” that is all they need to know. Such tools were not )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 530.691 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(accessible in traditional organization development or management practice because explanations or interventions were )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 518.786 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(expected to predict their own success. The unpredictability of complex adaptive systems removes this requirement and makes )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 506.881 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(accessible to study a whole new domain of intuition- and practice-based interventions that can only be assessed in retrospect.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 487.476 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Tools category 2: Descriptive metaphors.)] TJ ET
BT 217.516 487.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Complexity science is full of rich and engaging metaphors. )] TJ ET
BT 474.370 487.476 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Butterfly effects, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 475.572 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(attractors, fractals, edge of chaos)] TJ ET
BT 170.404 475.572 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( – they are poetic and easily accessible terms for the lay person. They can also be meaningful )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 463.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(descriptors of patterns that emerge from human systems dynamics. We refer to these as ‘descriptive’ metaphors not because )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 451.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(they are less valuable than ‘dynamic’ ones, but because the application requires a less literal interpretation of the mathematical )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 439.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity concept as it is applied to social systems. Using descriptive metaphors, one can think about how ‘butterfly effects’ )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 427.953 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(name patterns that appear commonly in human systems. For example, the descriptive metaphor can represent small deviations )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 416.048 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(in team procedure that may generate a major shift in direction. Such descriptive applications of the complexity concepts can )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 404.143 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(help build shared mental models, even when sensitive dependence on initial conditions cannot be measured or proven in any )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 392.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(formal way.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 372.834 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Tools category 3: Dynamic metaphors. Moving up the scale of abstraction and toward quantitative methods, we reach the tools )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 360.929 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(category of dynamic metaphors. Here we encounter methods of qualitative analysis, but ones that hold more closely to the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 349.024 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(literal interpretation of the complexity metaphors. Rather than just a superficial isomorphism with patterns of complex adaptive )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 337.119 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(or deterministic chaotic systems, dynamic metaphors focus on similarities between the underlying dynamics of the human )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 325.215 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(system and other nonlinear dynamical systems.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 305.810 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Tools category 4: Mathematics. The most abstract of the ways to understand and intervene are those that derive from )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 293.905 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(mathematics. Quantitative languages are much more formal and less ambiguous than metaphorical or practice approaches. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 282.000 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(This does not make them better, but it does make them more precise. Only the practitioner in a specific environment can )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 270.096 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(choose whether the situation, client needs, and resources warrant investment in mathematical analyses and interventions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 250.691 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(These three phenomenological and four epistemological categories define twelve clusters of complexity-inspired interventions. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 238.786 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Table 1 defines and gives an example of each category. We will not attempt a definitive categorization of each of the many )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 226.881 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity and human systems approaches because that is beyond the scope of this paper. We do believe, however, that this )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 214.977 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(rubric can help practitioners select an appropriate suite of complexity tools based on the immediacy of the emergent pattern and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 203.072 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the desire of the client and consultant for precision of understanding and planned intervention.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 166.469 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Applications in practice)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 146.515 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The twelve areas represented on the landscape provide ways to categorize the many options for working with and within )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 134.610 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complex human systems. Each cell represents a class of approaches that can be used to understand and influence complex )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 122.706 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human dynamics. Table 1 also gives an example of an approach that fits each of the locations on the Practice Landscape. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 110.801 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(These examples are provided merely to help explain the options that the Landscape describes. Any one of the areas could )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 98.896 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(include a large number of other interventions or approaches. These examples should help explain the structure and function of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 86.991 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the Practice Landscape. The following sets of examples demonstrate how a practitioner might use each of the tools categories )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 75.087 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(might be applied within each of the phenomenological categories.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 55.682 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Some phenomena in complex adaptive systems are obvious even to the casual observer. These are the surface structures that )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 43.777 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(appear across the first row of the Practice Landscape. For a variety of reasons, practitioners might choose to focus on these )] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 29.491 577.500 747.509 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Phenomena category 3: Subtle deep structures.)] TJ ET
BT 247.312 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Finally, some situations exhibit emergent patterns that are both subtle and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(deep. Neither the client’s native instincts nor the tools that function as simple cognitive filters can articulate a coherent pattern of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 743.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(relationships in the complex dynamics of the system. The complexity of these situations transcends the capacity of one level of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 731.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity tool and demands more subtle and/or complicated methods and models. Hospital error rates and other complex )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 719.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(phenomena where data points are distributed across time \(e.g., 1/)] TJ ET
BT 310.219 719.857 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(f)] TJ ET
BT 312.929 719.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( ‘pink’ noise phenomena\) are examples of deep structural )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 707.952 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns that require more subtle analysis techniques.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 688.548 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Each of these levels of subtly and depth requires a different set of complexity tools and techniques, and an adept practitioner )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 676.643 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(will be able to assess the environment and select approaches that fit the phenomena of interest and the complexity of the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 664.738 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns emergent in the client system.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 645.333 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The second dimension that defines the categories of the Practice Landscape deals not with the situation itself but with the tools )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 633.429 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(that are chosen for understanding and intervention. In short, these are ways that the situation can be represented by the client )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 621.524 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and the consultant. They are epistemological distinctions, and they determine how the team thinks and talks about the patterns )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 609.619 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(that emerge from the dynamics of the situation. We define four different categories along a continuum from least abstract )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 597.714 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(practice\) to most abstract \(mathematics\) tools for understanding and intervention. The four are described below.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 578.310 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Tools category 1: Practice.)] TJ ET
BT 150.338 578.310 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( It is possible to respond to quite complex dynamics immediately – without aid of language or )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 566.405 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(conscious analysis. Some complexity-based approaches are defined to support just such practice-oriented response. Many )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 554.500 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(clients are perfectly satisfied with options for action that do not come along with complicated explanations, strange language, or )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 542.595 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(sophisticated justifications. They ask, “Did it work?” If the answer is, “Yes,” that is all they need to know. Such tools were not )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 530.691 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(accessible in traditional organization development or management practice because explanations or interventions were )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 518.786 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(expected to predict their own success. The unpredictability of complex adaptive systems removes this requirement and makes )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 506.881 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(accessible to study a whole new domain of intuition- and practice-based interventions that can only be assessed in retrospect.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 487.476 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Tools category 2: Descriptive metaphors.)] TJ ET
BT 217.516 487.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Complexity science is full of rich and engaging metaphors. )] TJ ET
BT 474.370 487.476 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Butterfly effects, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 475.572 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(attractors, fractals, edge of chaos)] TJ ET
BT 170.404 475.572 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( – they are poetic and easily accessible terms for the lay person. They can also be meaningful )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 463.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(descriptors of patterns that emerge from human systems dynamics. We refer to these as ‘descriptive’ metaphors not because )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 451.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(they are less valuable than ‘dynamic’ ones, but because the application requires a less literal interpretation of the mathematical )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 439.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity concept as it is applied to social systems. Using descriptive metaphors, one can think about how ‘butterfly effects’ )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 427.953 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(name patterns that appear commonly in human systems. For example, the descriptive metaphor can represent small deviations )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 416.048 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(in team procedure that may generate a major shift in direction. Such descriptive applications of the complexity concepts can )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 404.143 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(help build shared mental models, even when sensitive dependence on initial conditions cannot be measured or proven in any )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 392.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(formal way.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 372.834 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Tools category 3: Dynamic metaphors. Moving up the scale of abstraction and toward quantitative methods, we reach the tools )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 360.929 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(category of dynamic metaphors. Here we encounter methods of qualitative analysis, but ones that hold more closely to the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 349.024 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(literal interpretation of the complexity metaphors. Rather than just a superficial isomorphism with patterns of complex adaptive )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 337.119 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(or deterministic chaotic systems, dynamic metaphors focus on similarities between the underlying dynamics of the human )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 325.215 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(system and other nonlinear dynamical systems.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 305.810 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Tools category 4: Mathematics. The most abstract of the ways to understand and intervene are those that derive from )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 293.905 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(mathematics. Quantitative languages are much more formal and less ambiguous than metaphorical or practice approaches. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 282.000 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(This does not make them better, but it does make them more precise. Only the practitioner in a specific environment can )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 270.096 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(choose whether the situation, client needs, and resources warrant investment in mathematical analyses and interventions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 250.691 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(These three phenomenological and four epistemological categories define twelve clusters of complexity-inspired interventions. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 238.786 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Table 1 defines and gives an example of each category. We will not attempt a definitive categorization of each of the many )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 226.881 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity and human systems approaches because that is beyond the scope of this paper. We do believe, however, that this )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 214.977 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(rubric can help practitioners select an appropriate suite of complexity tools based on the immediacy of the emergent pattern and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 203.072 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the desire of the client and consultant for precision of understanding and planned intervention.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 166.469 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Applications in practice)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 146.515 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The twelve areas represented on the landscape provide ways to categorize the many options for working with and within )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 134.610 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complex human systems. Each cell represents a class of approaches that can be used to understand and influence complex )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 122.706 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human dynamics. Table 1 also gives an example of an approach that fits each of the locations on the Practice Landscape. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 110.801 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(These examples are provided merely to help explain the options that the Landscape describes. Any one of the areas could )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 98.896 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(include a large number of other interventions or approaches. These examples should help explain the structure and function of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 86.991 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the Practice Landscape. The following sets of examples demonstrate how a practitioner might use each of the tools categories )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 75.087 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(might be applied within each of the phenomenological categories.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 55.682 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Some phenomena in complex adaptive systems are obvious even to the casual observer. These are the surface structures that )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 43.777 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(appear across the first row of the Practice Landscape. For a variety of reasons, practitioners might choose to focus on these )] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 29.491 577.500 747.509 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Phenomena category 3: Subtle deep structures.)] TJ ET
BT 247.312 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Finally, some situations exhibit emergent patterns that are both subtle and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(deep. Neither the client’s native instincts nor the tools that function as simple cognitive filters can articulate a coherent pattern of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 743.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(relationships in the complex dynamics of the system. The complexity of these situations transcends the capacity of one level of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 731.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity tool and demands more subtle and/or complicated methods and models. Hospital error rates and other complex )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 719.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(phenomena where data points are distributed across time \(e.g., 1/)] TJ ET
BT 310.219 719.857 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(f)] TJ ET
BT 312.929 719.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( ‘pink’ noise phenomena\) are examples of deep structural )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 707.952 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns that require more subtle analysis techniques.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 688.548 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Each of these levels of subtly and depth requires a different set of complexity tools and techniques, and an adept practitioner )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 676.643 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(will be able to assess the environment and select approaches that fit the phenomena of interest and the complexity of the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 664.738 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns emergent in the client system.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 645.333 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The second dimension that defines the categories of the Practice Landscape deals not with the situation itself but with the tools )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 633.429 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(that are chosen for understanding and intervention. In short, these are ways that the situation can be represented by the client )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 621.524 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and the consultant. They are epistemological distinctions, and they determine how the team thinks and talks about the patterns )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 609.619 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(that emerge from the dynamics of the situation. We define four different categories along a continuum from least abstract )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 597.714 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(practice\) to most abstract \(mathematics\) tools for understanding and intervention. The four are described below.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 578.310 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Tools category 1: Practice.)] TJ ET
BT 150.338 578.310 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( It is possible to respond to quite complex dynamics immediately – without aid of language or )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 566.405 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(conscious analysis. Some complexity-based approaches are defined to support just such practice-oriented response. Many )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 554.500 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(clients are perfectly satisfied with options for action that do not come along with complicated explanations, strange language, or )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 542.595 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(sophisticated justifications. They ask, “Did it work?” If the answer is, “Yes,” that is all they need to know. Such tools were not )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 530.691 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(accessible in traditional organization development or management practice because explanations or interventions were )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 518.786 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(expected to predict their own success. The unpredictability of complex adaptive systems removes this requirement and makes )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 506.881 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(accessible to study a whole new domain of intuition- and practice-based interventions that can only be assessed in retrospect.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 487.476 Td /F4 9.8 Tf [(Tools category 2: Descriptive metaphors.)] TJ ET
BT 217.516 487.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Complexity science is full of rich and engaging metaphors. )] TJ ET
BT 474.370 487.476 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Butterfly effects, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 475.572 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(attractors, fractals, edge of chaos)] TJ ET
BT 170.404 475.572 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( – they are poetic and easily accessible terms for the lay person. They can also be meaningful )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 463.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(descriptors of patterns that emerge from human systems dynamics. We refer to these as ‘descriptive’ metaphors not because )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 451.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(they are less valuable than ‘dynamic’ ones, but because the application requires a less literal interpretation of the mathematical )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 439.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity concept as it is applied to social systems. Using descriptive metaphors, one can think about how ‘butterfly effects’ )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 427.953 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(name patterns that appear commonly in human systems. For example, the descriptive metaphor can represent small deviations )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 416.048 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(in team procedure that may generate a major shift in direction. Such descriptive applications of the complexity concepts can )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 404.143 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(help build shared mental models, even when sensitive dependence on initial conditions cannot be measured or proven in any )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 392.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(formal way.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 372.834 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Tools category 3: Dynamic metaphors. Moving up the scale of abstraction and toward quantitative methods, we reach the tools )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 360.929 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(category of dynamic metaphors. Here we encounter methods of qualitative analysis, but ones that hold more closely to the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 349.024 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(literal interpretation of the complexity metaphors. Rather than just a superficial isomorphism with patterns of complex adaptive )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 337.119 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(or deterministic chaotic systems, dynamic metaphors focus on similarities between the underlying dynamics of the human )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 325.215 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(system and other nonlinear dynamical systems.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 305.810 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Tools category 4: Mathematics. The most abstract of the ways to understand and intervene are those that derive from )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 293.905 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(mathematics. Quantitative languages are much more formal and less ambiguous than metaphorical or practice approaches. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 282.000 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(This does not make them better, but it does make them more precise. Only the practitioner in a specific environment can )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 270.096 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(choose whether the situation, client needs, and resources warrant investment in mathematical analyses and interventions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 250.691 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(These three phenomenological and four epistemological categories define twelve clusters of complexity-inspired interventions. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 238.786 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Table 1 defines and gives an example of each category. We will not attempt a definitive categorization of each of the many )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 226.881 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity and human systems approaches because that is beyond the scope of this paper. We do believe, however, that this )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 214.977 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(rubric can help practitioners select an appropriate suite of complexity tools based on the immediacy of the emergent pattern and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 203.072 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the desire of the client and consultant for precision of understanding and planned intervention.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 166.469 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Applications in practice)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 146.515 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The twelve areas represented on the landscape provide ways to categorize the many options for working with and within )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 134.610 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complex human systems. Each cell represents a class of approaches that can be used to understand and influence complex )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 122.706 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human dynamics. Table 1 also gives an example of an approach that fits each of the locations on the Practice Landscape. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 110.801 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(These examples are provided merely to help explain the options that the Landscape describes. Any one of the areas could )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 98.896 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(include a large number of other interventions or approaches. These examples should help explain the structure and function of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 86.991 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the Practice Landscape. The following sets of examples demonstrate how a practitioner might use each of the tools categories )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 75.087 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(might be applied within each of the phenomenological categories.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 55.682 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Some phenomena in complex adaptive systems are obvious even to the casual observer. These are the surface structures that )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 43.777 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(appear across the first row of the Practice Landscape. For a variety of reasons, practitioners might choose to focus on these )] TJ ET
Q
q
0.000 0.000 0.000 rg
BT 291.710 19.825 Td /F1 11.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET
BT 25.000 19.825 Td /F1 11.0 Tf [(Emergence: Complexity and Organization)] TJ ET
Q
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15.000 28.182 577.500 748.818 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(phenomena rather than the more subtle patterns that emerge in self-organizing systems. A practitioner might take this path )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(when a client is new to the field and somewhat skeptical, or when time is short and dynamics are particularly disruptive. Even )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 743.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(when focusing on these obvious patterns, options for complexity-inspired interventions are many. Gareth Morgan’s 15% solution )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 731.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(Zimmerman, 2001\) encourages one to take action and observe how that action influences emergent patterns over time. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 719.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Another option is to name the obvious pattern of behavior using one of the beautiful and descriptive metaphors of complexity, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 707.952 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(such as the butterfly effect \(Wheatley, 1992\). Moving beyond the language, there are interventions that can shape intervening )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 696.048 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(action when the metaphors of complexity are taken somewhat more literally. )] TJ ET
BT 356.795 696.048 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Coupling)] TJ ET
BT 395.268 696.048 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( \(Eoyang, 1997\) is an example of using )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 684.143 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the relationships of complexity to shape not only descriptions but decisions in a dynamical human system. Finally, complex )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 672.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics can be captured in simple mathematics when measures, such as the Balanced Scorecard \(Kaplan & Norton, 1996\), )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 660.333 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(are used to track mutually causal factors in a complex and adaptive system. So, a wide range of options \(from action to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 648.429 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(mathematics\) is available when a practitioner needs or wants to influence the superficial structures that emerge in a complex )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 636.524 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(system.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 617.119 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Right below the surface in human systems dynamics are patterns that might be missed by the casual observer. These patterns, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 605.214 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(called evident deep structures, can be accessible to the ‘naked’ eye, but they require training and heightened sensitivity to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 593.310 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(discern the patterns as they emerge. Some clients and many human systems dynamics professionals are trained to see these )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 581.405 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns as they emerge. Various tools help articulate and translate these patterns into meaningful action. In terms of practice, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 569.500 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(reflection is a method that uncovers patterns that otherwise would be hidden from view. Practitioners use a variety of reflective )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 557.595 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(activities from journaling to guided imagery to help people see emergent patterns in their human systems. Moving to the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 545.691 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(descriptive metaphorical ways of understanding and action, many metaphors can be used to represent these patterns as they )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 533.786 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(emerge. One often used \(and sometime misused\) metaphor is the )] TJ ET
BT 313.456 533.786 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(strange attractor)] TJ ET
BT 384.446 533.786 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(. ‘Attractor’ presents the image of emergent )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 521.881 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(behavior that has a finite bound and infinite variability within the bound. This language can help a group be aware of and use its )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 509.976 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(inherent patterns of behavior. The next group of tools, dynamic metaphors, can shape shared action in a group as they become )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 498.072 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(aware of their own emerging patterns. Future Search \(Weisbord & Janoff, 2000\) is an example of an approach that uses the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 486.167 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(evident deep structures of a dynamical human system \(such as sensitive dependence on initial conditions, self-similarity, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 474.262 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(coupling, and mutual causality\) to establish conditions for organizational transformation. Finally, the mathematics of network )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 462.357 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(analysis \(Barabási, 2002\) can make the invisible visible to a group of people seeking to understand their shared dynamics. So, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 450.453 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(each category of tool, from unspoken practice through descriptive and dynamic metaphors and to mathematics, can be used to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 438.548 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(help articulate the deep structures of human dynamics that are accessible to trained observers.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 419.143 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The third, and final, level of phenomena involves those patterns that cannot be directly observed, even by trained observers. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 407.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(This level is called )] TJ ET
BT 108.062 407.238 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(subtle deep structures)] TJ ET
BT 203.983 407.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(. Depending on the dimensionality of the system and/or its stage of evolution, some )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 395.334 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complex adaptive systems evince patterns that are so deeply ingrained and so subtle that they cannot be seen without special )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 383.429 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(tools and techniques. Intuition is a practice tool that accesses these subtle structures. Some gifted individuals can sense a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 371.524 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘subtle realm’ when it is inaccessible to others or even to a conscious investigation by the intuitive. Open Space Technology )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 359.619 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(Owen, 2004\), a large group meeting facilitation technique, uses the dynamics of complexity to build system-wide patterns of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 347.715 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(understanding. Open Space depends on simple rules that define the underlying patterns of individual and group behavior, so it )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 335.810 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(gives names for the deep and subtle structures that drive the dynamics of human systems. Computer simulation models )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 323.905 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(generate even stronger metaphors for invisible patterns in human systems dynamics. By representing the systems’ interactions )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 312.000 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and emergent patterns, the simulation can make visible the deep, subtle patterns that emerge from complex interactions. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 300.096 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Finally, these subtle patterns can be uncovered by complex mathematical analyses, such as nonlinear time series analysis )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 288.191 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(Kaplan & Glass, 1995\). These different types of tools can be used to discover, describe, and influence the deep structures and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 276.286 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns of behavior that emerge in complex human systems.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 256.881 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(These twelve categories of practice, defined by the object of focus and the tools of investigation, provide a rubric to help a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 244.977 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(practitioner understand the wide variety of complexity-based approaches and to select the one that is most appropriate for a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 233.072 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(given situation. Armed with this understanding, the practitioner can select the approach that best fits the needs and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 221.167 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(opportunities of the situation and the moment.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 184.565 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Benefits of the practice landscape)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 164.610 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(When one is faced with the multitude of complexity-inspired approaches, the Practice Landscape can provide a variety of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 152.706 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(benefits. Choices are simplified without restricting options. When a situation is viewed through this landscape, practitioners have )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 140.801 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(two choices to make. One can view more or less subtle patterns with more or less abstract tools. Focusing on these two )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 128.896 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(variables, a practitioner can focus in on a small subset of tools and approaches that might meet the immediate need.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 109.491 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(All options are equally valid. No one part of the landscape is by nature superior to another. In some circumstances you need to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 97.587 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(deal with the patterns that are already seen by everyone in a group. Sometimes you need to practice your insights about )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 85.682 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity without using the language. In other situations you may be able to use the mathematical tools of complex adaptive )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 73.777 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems to demonstrate subtle and surprising dynamics. No place on the landscape is any less useful or true than any other. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 61.872 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The only question is, “Which of the options fits your practice environment at a particular place or time?”)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 42.468 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(New approaches can be envisioned that take a known approach from one domain and finds ways to apply it in another. )] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 28.182 577.500 748.818 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(phenomena rather than the more subtle patterns that emerge in self-organizing systems. A practitioner might take this path )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(when a client is new to the field and somewhat skeptical, or when time is short and dynamics are particularly disruptive. Even )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 743.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(when focusing on these obvious patterns, options for complexity-inspired interventions are many. Gareth Morgan’s 15% solution )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 731.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(Zimmerman, 2001\) encourages one to take action and observe how that action influences emergent patterns over time. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 719.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Another option is to name the obvious pattern of behavior using one of the beautiful and descriptive metaphors of complexity, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 707.952 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(such as the butterfly effect \(Wheatley, 1992\). Moving beyond the language, there are interventions that can shape intervening )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 696.048 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(action when the metaphors of complexity are taken somewhat more literally. )] TJ ET
BT 356.795 696.048 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Coupling)] TJ ET
BT 395.268 696.048 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( \(Eoyang, 1997\) is an example of using )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 684.143 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the relationships of complexity to shape not only descriptions but decisions in a dynamical human system. Finally, complex )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 672.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics can be captured in simple mathematics when measures, such as the Balanced Scorecard \(Kaplan & Norton, 1996\), )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 660.333 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(are used to track mutually causal factors in a complex and adaptive system. So, a wide range of options \(from action to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 648.429 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(mathematics\) is available when a practitioner needs or wants to influence the superficial structures that emerge in a complex )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 636.524 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(system.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 617.119 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Right below the surface in human systems dynamics are patterns that might be missed by the casual observer. These patterns, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 605.214 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(called evident deep structures, can be accessible to the ‘naked’ eye, but they require training and heightened sensitivity to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 593.310 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(discern the patterns as they emerge. Some clients and many human systems dynamics professionals are trained to see these )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 581.405 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns as they emerge. Various tools help articulate and translate these patterns into meaningful action. In terms of practice, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 569.500 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(reflection is a method that uncovers patterns that otherwise would be hidden from view. Practitioners use a variety of reflective )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 557.595 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(activities from journaling to guided imagery to help people see emergent patterns in their human systems. Moving to the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 545.691 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(descriptive metaphorical ways of understanding and action, many metaphors can be used to represent these patterns as they )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 533.786 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(emerge. One often used \(and sometime misused\) metaphor is the )] TJ ET
BT 313.456 533.786 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(strange attractor)] TJ ET
BT 384.446 533.786 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(. ‘Attractor’ presents the image of emergent )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 521.881 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(behavior that has a finite bound and infinite variability within the bound. This language can help a group be aware of and use its )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 509.976 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(inherent patterns of behavior. The next group of tools, dynamic metaphors, can shape shared action in a group as they become )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 498.072 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(aware of their own emerging patterns. Future Search \(Weisbord & Janoff, 2000\) is an example of an approach that uses the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 486.167 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(evident deep structures of a dynamical human system \(such as sensitive dependence on initial conditions, self-similarity, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 474.262 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(coupling, and mutual causality\) to establish conditions for organizational transformation. Finally, the mathematics of network )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 462.357 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(analysis \(Barabási, 2002\) can make the invisible visible to a group of people seeking to understand their shared dynamics. So, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 450.453 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(each category of tool, from unspoken practice through descriptive and dynamic metaphors and to mathematics, can be used to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 438.548 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(help articulate the deep structures of human dynamics that are accessible to trained observers.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 419.143 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The third, and final, level of phenomena involves those patterns that cannot be directly observed, even by trained observers. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 407.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(This level is called )] TJ ET
BT 108.062 407.238 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(subtle deep structures)] TJ ET
BT 203.983 407.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(. Depending on the dimensionality of the system and/or its stage of evolution, some )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 395.334 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complex adaptive systems evince patterns that are so deeply ingrained and so subtle that they cannot be seen without special )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 383.429 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(tools and techniques. Intuition is a practice tool that accesses these subtle structures. Some gifted individuals can sense a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 371.524 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘subtle realm’ when it is inaccessible to others or even to a conscious investigation by the intuitive. Open Space Technology )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 359.619 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(Owen, 2004\), a large group meeting facilitation technique, uses the dynamics of complexity to build system-wide patterns of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 347.715 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(understanding. Open Space depends on simple rules that define the underlying patterns of individual and group behavior, so it )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 335.810 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(gives names for the deep and subtle structures that drive the dynamics of human systems. Computer simulation models )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 323.905 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(generate even stronger metaphors for invisible patterns in human systems dynamics. By representing the systems’ interactions )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 312.000 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and emergent patterns, the simulation can make visible the deep, subtle patterns that emerge from complex interactions. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 300.096 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Finally, these subtle patterns can be uncovered by complex mathematical analyses, such as nonlinear time series analysis )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 288.191 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(Kaplan & Glass, 1995\). These different types of tools can be used to discover, describe, and influence the deep structures and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 276.286 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns of behavior that emerge in complex human systems.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 256.881 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(These twelve categories of practice, defined by the object of focus and the tools of investigation, provide a rubric to help a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 244.977 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(practitioner understand the wide variety of complexity-based approaches and to select the one that is most appropriate for a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 233.072 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(given situation. Armed with this understanding, the practitioner can select the approach that best fits the needs and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 221.167 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(opportunities of the situation and the moment.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 184.565 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Benefits of the practice landscape)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 164.610 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(When one is faced with the multitude of complexity-inspired approaches, the Practice Landscape can provide a variety of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 152.706 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(benefits. Choices are simplified without restricting options. When a situation is viewed through this landscape, practitioners have )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 140.801 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(two choices to make. One can view more or less subtle patterns with more or less abstract tools. Focusing on these two )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 128.896 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(variables, a practitioner can focus in on a small subset of tools and approaches that might meet the immediate need.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 109.491 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(All options are equally valid. No one part of the landscape is by nature superior to another. In some circumstances you need to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 97.587 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(deal with the patterns that are already seen by everyone in a group. Sometimes you need to practice your insights about )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 85.682 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity without using the language. In other situations you may be able to use the mathematical tools of complex adaptive )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 73.777 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems to demonstrate subtle and surprising dynamics. No place on the landscape is any less useful or true than any other. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 61.872 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The only question is, “Which of the options fits your practice environment at a particular place or time?”)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 42.468 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(New approaches can be envisioned that take a known approach from one domain and finds ways to apply it in another. )] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 28.182 577.500 748.818 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(phenomena rather than the more subtle patterns that emerge in self-organizing systems. A practitioner might take this path )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(when a client is new to the field and somewhat skeptical, or when time is short and dynamics are particularly disruptive. Even )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 743.667 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(when focusing on these obvious patterns, options for complexity-inspired interventions are many. Gareth Morgan’s 15% solution )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 731.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(Zimmerman, 2001\) encourages one to take action and observe how that action influences emergent patterns over time. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 719.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Another option is to name the obvious pattern of behavior using one of the beautiful and descriptive metaphors of complexity, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 707.952 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(such as the butterfly effect \(Wheatley, 1992\). Moving beyond the language, there are interventions that can shape intervening )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 696.048 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(action when the metaphors of complexity are taken somewhat more literally. )] TJ ET
BT 356.795 696.048 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Coupling)] TJ ET
BT 395.268 696.048 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( \(Eoyang, 1997\) is an example of using )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 684.143 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the relationships of complexity to shape not only descriptions but decisions in a dynamical human system. Finally, complex )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 672.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(dynamics can be captured in simple mathematics when measures, such as the Balanced Scorecard \(Kaplan & Norton, 1996\), )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 660.333 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(are used to track mutually causal factors in a complex and adaptive system. So, a wide range of options \(from action to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 648.429 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(mathematics\) is available when a practitioner needs or wants to influence the superficial structures that emerge in a complex )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 636.524 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(system.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 617.119 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Right below the surface in human systems dynamics are patterns that might be missed by the casual observer. These patterns, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 605.214 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(called evident deep structures, can be accessible to the ‘naked’ eye, but they require training and heightened sensitivity to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 593.310 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(discern the patterns as they emerge. Some clients and many human systems dynamics professionals are trained to see these )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 581.405 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns as they emerge. Various tools help articulate and translate these patterns into meaningful action. In terms of practice, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 569.500 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(reflection is a method that uncovers patterns that otherwise would be hidden from view. Practitioners use a variety of reflective )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 557.595 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(activities from journaling to guided imagery to help people see emergent patterns in their human systems. Moving to the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 545.691 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(descriptive metaphorical ways of understanding and action, many metaphors can be used to represent these patterns as they )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 533.786 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(emerge. One often used \(and sometime misused\) metaphor is the )] TJ ET
BT 313.456 533.786 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(strange attractor)] TJ ET
BT 384.446 533.786 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(. ‘Attractor’ presents the image of emergent )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 521.881 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(behavior that has a finite bound and infinite variability within the bound. This language can help a group be aware of and use its )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 509.976 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(inherent patterns of behavior. The next group of tools, dynamic metaphors, can shape shared action in a group as they become )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 498.072 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(aware of their own emerging patterns. Future Search \(Weisbord & Janoff, 2000\) is an example of an approach that uses the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 486.167 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(evident deep structures of a dynamical human system \(such as sensitive dependence on initial conditions, self-similarity, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 474.262 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(coupling, and mutual causality\) to establish conditions for organizational transformation. Finally, the mathematics of network )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 462.357 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(analysis \(Barabási, 2002\) can make the invisible visible to a group of people seeking to understand their shared dynamics. So, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 450.453 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(each category of tool, from unspoken practice through descriptive and dynamic metaphors and to mathematics, can be used to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 438.548 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(help articulate the deep structures of human dynamics that are accessible to trained observers.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 419.143 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The third, and final, level of phenomena involves those patterns that cannot be directly observed, even by trained observers. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 407.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(This level is called )] TJ ET
BT 108.062 407.238 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(subtle deep structures)] TJ ET
BT 203.983 407.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(. Depending on the dimensionality of the system and/or its stage of evolution, some )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 395.334 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complex adaptive systems evince patterns that are so deeply ingrained and so subtle that they cannot be seen without special )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 383.429 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(tools and techniques. Intuition is a practice tool that accesses these subtle structures. Some gifted individuals can sense a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 371.524 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(‘subtle realm’ when it is inaccessible to others or even to a conscious investigation by the intuitive. Open Space Technology )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 359.619 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(Owen, 2004\), a large group meeting facilitation technique, uses the dynamics of complexity to build system-wide patterns of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 347.715 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(understanding. Open Space depends on simple rules that define the underlying patterns of individual and group behavior, so it )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 335.810 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(gives names for the deep and subtle structures that drive the dynamics of human systems. Computer simulation models )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 323.905 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(generate even stronger metaphors for invisible patterns in human systems dynamics. By representing the systems’ interactions )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 312.000 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and emergent patterns, the simulation can make visible the deep, subtle patterns that emerge from complex interactions. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 300.096 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Finally, these subtle patterns can be uncovered by complex mathematical analyses, such as nonlinear time series analysis )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 288.191 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(\(Kaplan & Glass, 1995\). These different types of tools can be used to discover, describe, and influence the deep structures and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 276.286 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(patterns of behavior that emerge in complex human systems.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 256.881 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(These twelve categories of practice, defined by the object of focus and the tools of investigation, provide a rubric to help a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 244.977 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(practitioner understand the wide variety of complexity-based approaches and to select the one that is most appropriate for a )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 233.072 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(given situation. Armed with this understanding, the practitioner can select the approach that best fits the needs and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 221.167 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(opportunities of the situation and the moment.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 184.565 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Benefits of the practice landscape)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 164.610 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(When one is faced with the multitude of complexity-inspired approaches, the Practice Landscape can provide a variety of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 152.706 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(benefits. Choices are simplified without restricting options. When a situation is viewed through this landscape, practitioners have )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 140.801 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(two choices to make. One can view more or less subtle patterns with more or less abstract tools. Focusing on these two )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 128.896 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(variables, a practitioner can focus in on a small subset of tools and approaches that might meet the immediate need.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 109.491 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(All options are equally valid. No one part of the landscape is by nature superior to another. In some circumstances you need to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 97.587 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(deal with the patterns that are already seen by everyone in a group. Sometimes you need to practice your insights about )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 85.682 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(complexity without using the language. In other situations you may be able to use the mathematical tools of complex adaptive )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 73.777 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems to demonstrate subtle and surprising dynamics. No place on the landscape is any less useful or true than any other. )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 61.872 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(The only question is, “Which of the options fits your practice environment at a particular place or time?”)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 42.468 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(New approaches can be envisioned that take a known approach from one domain and finds ways to apply it in another. )] TJ ET
Q
q
0.000 0.000 0.000 rg
BT 291.710 19.825 Td /F1 11.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET
BT 25.000 19.825 Td /F1 11.0 Tf [(Emergence: Complexity and Organization)] TJ ET
Q
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0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Likewise, this set of categories can be a framework for personal development as a practitioner recognizes his or her strengths )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and works to overcome personal weaknesses.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 736.167 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(A group of colleagues can use the Practice Landscape to support a planning process. It provides a shared language that )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 724.262 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(acknowledges the power of multiple perspectives while providing meaningful distinctions and criteria for shared decisions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 687.659 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Challenges to the neatness of the landscape)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 667.705 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(It would be nice to believe that the Practice Landscape provides unambiguous order for the messy collection of practices in )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 655.800 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human systems dynamics. This is not the case. Like most models, this gives one some level of meaning and leaves other )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 643.896 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(questions unanswered. Some questions for future study include:)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 624.491 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Can subtle deep structures and evident deep structures be objectively distinguished?)] TJ ET
BT 392.596 624.491 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Any abstract definition of the two would )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 612.586 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(appear to be arbitrary, on the other hand, in practice a specific case offers little ambiguity. Either the practitioner is able to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 600.681 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(recognize and describe emergent patterns in ways that make them manifest to the client or not. If so, then the structure can be )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 588.777 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(said to be evident, though deep. If the patterns become manifest only with the application of some more sophisticated )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 576.872 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(methodology, then they can be said to be subtle deep structures.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 557.467 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Is the distinction between dynamic and descriptive metaphors a helpful one?)] TJ ET
BT 355.741 557.467 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( The terms are not meant to be pejorative – both )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 545.562 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(descriptive and dynamic metaphors can be equally useful. But there is a practical distinction between the two. Descriptive )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 533.658 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(metaphors use the language of complexity to describe patterns that emerge in human systems. These descriptions are based )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 521.753 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(on apparent isomorphisms between chaotic or complex adaptive patterns in physical systems and emergent behavior in human )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 509.848 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems. No causal connection is perceived or implied. Dynamic metaphors, on the other hand, posit similar dynamics between )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 497.943 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the physical and human systems, allowing the practitioner to use the principles of complexity to influence intentionally the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 486.039 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(conditions or interactions that result in the emergent behaviors.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 466.634 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Are the number of categories for either the phenomena or the tools sufficient?)] TJ ET
BT 361.172 466.634 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Are more divisions needed to capture the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 454.729 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(meaningful distinctions among current human systems dynamics tools and techniques? Both dimensions – phenomenon and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 442.824 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(tools – are probably more continua than discrete clusters, but the finite number of distinct categories simplifies the process of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 430.920 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(recognizing the needs and matching methods to requirements.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 411.515 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Like most useful models, the Practice Landscape introduces a whole new set of meaningful questions that will affect both )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 399.610 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(research and practice in the field. Some questions for future consideration include:)] TJ ET
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26.250 389.729 m 581.250 389.729 l 581.250 388.979 l 26.250 388.979 l f
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0.271 0.267 0.267 RG
49.337 373.423 m
49.337 373.870 49.154 374.314 48.838 374.630 c
48.522 374.945 48.078 375.129 47.631 375.129 c
47.185 375.129 46.741 374.945 46.425 374.630 c
46.109 374.314 45.925 373.870 45.925 373.423 c
45.925 372.976 46.109 372.532 46.425 372.216 c
46.741 371.901 47.185 371.717 47.631 371.717 c
48.078 371.717 48.522 371.901 48.838 372.216 c
49.154 372.532 49.337 372.976 49.337 373.423 c f
BT 54.750 370.455 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(What is a catalogue of complexity-inspired approaches that fall into each of the twelve categories?)] TJ ET
49.337 350.268 m
49.337 350.715 49.154 351.159 48.838 351.475 c
48.522 351.791 48.078 351.975 47.631 351.975 c
47.185 351.975 46.741 351.791 46.425 351.475 c
46.109 351.159 45.925 350.715 45.925 350.268 c
45.925 349.822 46.109 349.378 46.425 349.062 c
46.741 348.746 47.185 348.562 47.631 348.562 c
48.078 348.562 48.522 348.746 48.838 349.062 c
49.154 349.378 49.337 349.822 49.337 350.268 c f
BT 54.750 347.301 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Which categories have most tools and techniques available and which categories need further development or )] TJ ET
BT 54.750 335.396 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(investigation?)] TJ ET
49.337 315.209 m
49.337 315.655 49.154 316.099 48.838 316.415 c
48.522 316.731 48.078 316.915 47.631 316.915 c
47.185 316.915 46.741 316.731 46.425 316.415 c
46.109 316.099 45.925 315.655 45.925 315.209 c
45.925 314.762 46.109 314.318 46.425 314.002 c
46.741 313.686 47.185 313.503 47.631 313.503 c
48.078 313.503 48.522 313.686 48.838 314.002 c
49.154 314.318 49.337 314.762 49.337 315.209 c f
BT 54.750 312.241 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(How does a practitioner assess a situation to determine whether the patterns are more or less deep or evident?)] TJ ET
49.337 292.054 m
49.337 292.501 49.154 292.945 48.838 293.261 c
48.522 293.576 48.078 293.760 47.631 293.760 c
47.185 293.760 46.741 293.576 46.425 293.261 c
46.109 292.945 45.925 292.501 45.925 292.054 c
45.925 291.607 46.109 291.163 46.425 290.847 c
46.741 290.532 47.185 290.348 47.631 290.348 c
48.078 290.348 48.522 290.532 48.838 290.847 c
49.154 291.163 49.337 291.607 49.337 292.054 c f
BT 54.750 289.086 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(What is the appropriate role of client awareness and consultant consciousness of the phenomena and available tools?)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 247.182 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(There is no doubt that principles from chaos and complexity can be helpful to practitioners who work in human systems, but the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 235.277 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(myriad approaches and tools can be quite confusing. The Practice Landscape provides a taxonomy to articulate useful )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 223.372 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(differences among tools and techniques that have been developed by scholars and practitioners. Based on these distinctions, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 211.467 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(methods, tools, and techniques can be selected that are most fitting for the situation and for the expectations and perspectives )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 199.563 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of the client and the practitioner.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 162.960 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Acknowledgements)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 143.006 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(I wish to thank Jeffrey Goldstein and other members of the community who provided input and especially to the peer reviewers )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 131.101 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(who provided feedback on earlier drafts of this paper. Any missteps, however, are the sole responsibility of the author.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 101.999 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(References)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 74.544 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 74.544 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Barabasi, A. \(2002\). Linked: The new science of networks, Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 55.140 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 55.140 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Eoyang, G. \(1997\). Coping with chaos: Seven simple tools, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Lagumo Publishing.)] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 45.259 577.500 731.741 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Likewise, this set of categories can be a framework for personal development as a practitioner recognizes his or her strengths )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and works to overcome personal weaknesses.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 736.167 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(A group of colleagues can use the Practice Landscape to support a planning process. It provides a shared language that )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 724.262 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(acknowledges the power of multiple perspectives while providing meaningful distinctions and criteria for shared decisions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 687.659 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Challenges to the neatness of the landscape)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 667.705 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(It would be nice to believe that the Practice Landscape provides unambiguous order for the messy collection of practices in )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 655.800 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human systems dynamics. This is not the case. Like most models, this gives one some level of meaning and leaves other )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 643.896 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(questions unanswered. Some questions for future study include:)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 624.491 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Can subtle deep structures and evident deep structures be objectively distinguished?)] TJ ET
BT 392.596 624.491 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Any abstract definition of the two would )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 612.586 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(appear to be arbitrary, on the other hand, in practice a specific case offers little ambiguity. Either the practitioner is able to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 600.681 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(recognize and describe emergent patterns in ways that make them manifest to the client or not. If so, then the structure can be )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 588.777 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(said to be evident, though deep. If the patterns become manifest only with the application of some more sophisticated )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 576.872 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(methodology, then they can be said to be subtle deep structures.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 557.467 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Is the distinction between dynamic and descriptive metaphors a helpful one?)] TJ ET
BT 355.741 557.467 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( The terms are not meant to be pejorative – both )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 545.562 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(descriptive and dynamic metaphors can be equally useful. But there is a practical distinction between the two. Descriptive )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 533.658 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(metaphors use the language of complexity to describe patterns that emerge in human systems. These descriptions are based )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 521.753 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(on apparent isomorphisms between chaotic or complex adaptive patterns in physical systems and emergent behavior in human )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 509.848 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems. No causal connection is perceived or implied. Dynamic metaphors, on the other hand, posit similar dynamics between )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 497.943 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the physical and human systems, allowing the practitioner to use the principles of complexity to influence intentionally the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 486.039 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(conditions or interactions that result in the emergent behaviors.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 466.634 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Are the number of categories for either the phenomena or the tools sufficient?)] TJ ET
BT 361.172 466.634 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Are more divisions needed to capture the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 454.729 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(meaningful distinctions among current human systems dynamics tools and techniques? Both dimensions – phenomenon and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 442.824 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(tools – are probably more continua than discrete clusters, but the finite number of distinct categories simplifies the process of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 430.920 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(recognizing the needs and matching methods to requirements.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 411.515 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Like most useful models, the Practice Landscape introduces a whole new set of meaningful questions that will affect both )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 399.610 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(research and practice in the field. Some questions for future consideration include:)] TJ ET
0.965 0.965 0.965 rg
26.250 264.206 555.000 125.524 re f
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
0.267 0.267 0.267 RG
26.250 389.729 m 581.250 389.729 l 581.250 388.979 l 26.250 388.979 l f
26.250 264.206 m 581.250 264.206 l 581.250 264.956 l 26.250 264.956 l f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
0.271 0.267 0.267 RG
49.337 373.423 m
49.337 373.870 49.154 374.314 48.838 374.630 c
48.522 374.945 48.078 375.129 47.631 375.129 c
47.185 375.129 46.741 374.945 46.425 374.630 c
46.109 374.314 45.925 373.870 45.925 373.423 c
45.925 372.976 46.109 372.532 46.425 372.216 c
46.741 371.901 47.185 371.717 47.631 371.717 c
48.078 371.717 48.522 371.901 48.838 372.216 c
49.154 372.532 49.337 372.976 49.337 373.423 c f
BT 54.750 370.455 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(What is a catalogue of complexity-inspired approaches that fall into each of the twelve categories?)] TJ ET
49.337 350.268 m
49.337 350.715 49.154 351.159 48.838 351.475 c
48.522 351.791 48.078 351.975 47.631 351.975 c
47.185 351.975 46.741 351.791 46.425 351.475 c
46.109 351.159 45.925 350.715 45.925 350.268 c
45.925 349.822 46.109 349.378 46.425 349.062 c
46.741 348.746 47.185 348.562 47.631 348.562 c
48.078 348.562 48.522 348.746 48.838 349.062 c
49.154 349.378 49.337 349.822 49.337 350.268 c f
BT 54.750 347.301 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Which categories have most tools and techniques available and which categories need further development or )] TJ ET
BT 54.750 335.396 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(investigation?)] TJ ET
49.337 315.209 m
49.337 315.655 49.154 316.099 48.838 316.415 c
48.522 316.731 48.078 316.915 47.631 316.915 c
47.185 316.915 46.741 316.731 46.425 316.415 c
46.109 316.099 45.925 315.655 45.925 315.209 c
45.925 314.762 46.109 314.318 46.425 314.002 c
46.741 313.686 47.185 313.503 47.631 313.503 c
48.078 313.503 48.522 313.686 48.838 314.002 c
49.154 314.318 49.337 314.762 49.337 315.209 c f
BT 54.750 312.241 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(How does a practitioner assess a situation to determine whether the patterns are more or less deep or evident?)] TJ ET
49.337 292.054 m
49.337 292.501 49.154 292.945 48.838 293.261 c
48.522 293.576 48.078 293.760 47.631 293.760 c
47.185 293.760 46.741 293.576 46.425 293.261 c
46.109 292.945 45.925 292.501 45.925 292.054 c
45.925 291.607 46.109 291.163 46.425 290.847 c
46.741 290.532 47.185 290.348 47.631 290.348 c
48.078 290.348 48.522 290.532 48.838 290.847 c
49.154 291.163 49.337 291.607 49.337 292.054 c f
BT 54.750 289.086 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(What is the appropriate role of client awareness and consultant consciousness of the phenomena and available tools?)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 247.182 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(There is no doubt that principles from chaos and complexity can be helpful to practitioners who work in human systems, but the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 235.277 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(myriad approaches and tools can be quite confusing. The Practice Landscape provides a taxonomy to articulate useful )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 223.372 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(differences among tools and techniques that have been developed by scholars and practitioners. Based on these distinctions, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 211.467 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(methods, tools, and techniques can be selected that are most fitting for the situation and for the expectations and perspectives )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 199.563 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of the client and the practitioner.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 162.960 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Acknowledgements)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 143.006 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(I wish to thank Jeffrey Goldstein and other members of the community who provided input and especially to the peer reviewers )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 131.101 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(who provided feedback on earlier drafts of this paper. Any missteps, however, are the sole responsibility of the author.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 101.999 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(References)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 74.544 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 74.544 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Barabasi, A. \(2002\). Linked: The new science of networks, Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 55.140 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 55.140 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Eoyang, G. \(1997\). Coping with chaos: Seven simple tools, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Lagumo Publishing.)] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 45.259 577.500 731.741 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 767.476 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Likewise, this set of categories can be a framework for personal development as a practitioner recognizes his or her strengths )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 755.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(and works to overcome personal weaknesses.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 736.167 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(A group of colleagues can use the Practice Landscape to support a planning process. It provides a shared language that )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 724.262 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(acknowledges the power of multiple perspectives while providing meaningful distinctions and criteria for shared decisions.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 687.659 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Challenges to the neatness of the landscape)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 667.705 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(It would be nice to believe that the Practice Landscape provides unambiguous order for the messy collection of practices in )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 655.800 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(human systems dynamics. This is not the case. Like most models, this gives one some level of meaning and leaves other )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 643.896 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(questions unanswered. Some questions for future study include:)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 624.491 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Can subtle deep structures and evident deep structures be objectively distinguished?)] TJ ET
BT 392.596 624.491 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Any abstract definition of the two would )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 612.586 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(appear to be arbitrary, on the other hand, in practice a specific case offers little ambiguity. Either the practitioner is able to )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 600.681 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(recognize and describe emergent patterns in ways that make them manifest to the client or not. If so, then the structure can be )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 588.777 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(said to be evident, though deep. If the patterns become manifest only with the application of some more sophisticated )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 576.872 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(methodology, then they can be said to be subtle deep structures.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 557.467 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Is the distinction between dynamic and descriptive metaphors a helpful one?)] TJ ET
BT 355.741 557.467 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( The terms are not meant to be pejorative – both )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 545.562 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(descriptive and dynamic metaphors can be equally useful. But there is a practical distinction between the two. Descriptive )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 533.658 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(metaphors use the language of complexity to describe patterns that emerge in human systems. These descriptions are based )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 521.753 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(on apparent isomorphisms between chaotic or complex adaptive patterns in physical systems and emergent behavior in human )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 509.848 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(systems. No causal connection is perceived or implied. Dynamic metaphors, on the other hand, posit similar dynamics between )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 497.943 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(the physical and human systems, allowing the practitioner to use the principles of complexity to influence intentionally the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 486.039 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(conditions or interactions that result in the emergent behaviors.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 466.634 Td /F5 9.8 Tf [(Are the number of categories for either the phenomena or the tools sufficient?)] TJ ET
BT 361.172 466.634 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [( Are more divisions needed to capture the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 454.729 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(meaningful distinctions among current human systems dynamics tools and techniques? Both dimensions – phenomenon and )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 442.824 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(tools – are probably more continua than discrete clusters, but the finite number of distinct categories simplifies the process of )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 430.920 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(recognizing the needs and matching methods to requirements.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 411.515 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Like most useful models, the Practice Landscape introduces a whole new set of meaningful questions that will affect both )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 399.610 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(research and practice in the field. Some questions for future consideration include:)] TJ ET
0.965 0.965 0.965 rg
26.250 264.206 555.000 125.524 re f
0.267 0.267 0.267 rg
0.267 0.267 0.267 RG
26.250 389.729 m 581.250 389.729 l 581.250 388.979 l 26.250 388.979 l f
26.250 264.206 m 581.250 264.206 l 581.250 264.956 l 26.250 264.956 l f
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
0.271 0.267 0.267 RG
49.337 373.423 m
49.337 373.870 49.154 374.314 48.838 374.630 c
48.522 374.945 48.078 375.129 47.631 375.129 c
47.185 375.129 46.741 374.945 46.425 374.630 c
46.109 374.314 45.925 373.870 45.925 373.423 c
45.925 372.976 46.109 372.532 46.425 372.216 c
46.741 371.901 47.185 371.717 47.631 371.717 c
48.078 371.717 48.522 371.901 48.838 372.216 c
49.154 372.532 49.337 372.976 49.337 373.423 c f
BT 54.750 370.455 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(What is a catalogue of complexity-inspired approaches that fall into each of the twelve categories?)] TJ ET
49.337 350.268 m
49.337 350.715 49.154 351.159 48.838 351.475 c
48.522 351.791 48.078 351.975 47.631 351.975 c
47.185 351.975 46.741 351.791 46.425 351.475 c
46.109 351.159 45.925 350.715 45.925 350.268 c
45.925 349.822 46.109 349.378 46.425 349.062 c
46.741 348.746 47.185 348.562 47.631 348.562 c
48.078 348.562 48.522 348.746 48.838 349.062 c
49.154 349.378 49.337 349.822 49.337 350.268 c f
BT 54.750 347.301 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Which categories have most tools and techniques available and which categories need further development or )] TJ ET
BT 54.750 335.396 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(investigation?)] TJ ET
49.337 315.209 m
49.337 315.655 49.154 316.099 48.838 316.415 c
48.522 316.731 48.078 316.915 47.631 316.915 c
47.185 316.915 46.741 316.731 46.425 316.415 c
46.109 316.099 45.925 315.655 45.925 315.209 c
45.925 314.762 46.109 314.318 46.425 314.002 c
46.741 313.686 47.185 313.503 47.631 313.503 c
48.078 313.503 48.522 313.686 48.838 314.002 c
49.154 314.318 49.337 314.762 49.337 315.209 c f
BT 54.750 312.241 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(How does a practitioner assess a situation to determine whether the patterns are more or less deep or evident?)] TJ ET
49.337 292.054 m
49.337 292.501 49.154 292.945 48.838 293.261 c
48.522 293.576 48.078 293.760 47.631 293.760 c
47.185 293.760 46.741 293.576 46.425 293.261 c
46.109 292.945 45.925 292.501 45.925 292.054 c
45.925 291.607 46.109 291.163 46.425 290.847 c
46.741 290.532 47.185 290.348 47.631 290.348 c
48.078 290.348 48.522 290.532 48.838 290.847 c
49.154 291.163 49.337 291.607 49.337 292.054 c f
BT 54.750 289.086 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(What is the appropriate role of client awareness and consultant consciousness of the phenomena and available tools?)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 247.182 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(There is no doubt that principles from chaos and complexity can be helpful to practitioners who work in human systems, but the )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 235.277 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(myriad approaches and tools can be quite confusing. The Practice Landscape provides a taxonomy to articulate useful )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 223.372 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(differences among tools and techniques that have been developed by scholars and practitioners. Based on these distinctions, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 211.467 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(methods, tools, and techniques can be selected that are most fitting for the situation and for the expectations and perspectives )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 199.563 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(of the client and the practitioner.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 162.960 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Acknowledgements)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 143.006 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(I wish to thank Jeffrey Goldstein and other members of the community who provided input and especially to the peer reviewers )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 131.101 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(who provided feedback on earlier drafts of this paper. Any missteps, however, are the sole responsibility of the author.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 101.999 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(References)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 74.544 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 74.544 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Barabasi, A. \(2002\). Linked: The new science of networks, Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 55.140 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 55.140 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Eoyang, G. \(1997\). Coping with chaos: Seven simple tools, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Lagumo Publishing.)] TJ ET
Q
q
0.000 0.000 0.000 rg
BT 291.710 19.825 Td /F1 11.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET
BT 25.000 19.825 Td /F1 11.0 Tf [(Emergence: Complexity and Organization)] TJ ET
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q
15.000 445.810 577.500 331.190 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 759.976 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 759.976 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Goldstein, J. \(1994\). The unshackled organization, New York: Productivity Press.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 740.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 740.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Kaplan, R. and D. Norton. \(1996\). The balanced scorecard, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 721.167 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 721.167 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Kaplan, D. and L. Glass. \(1995\) Understanding nonlinear dynamics, New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 701.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 701.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Knowles, R. \(2002\). The leadership dance: Pathways to extraordinary organizational effectiveness, NY: The Center for Self-)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 689.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Organizing Leadership.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 670.452 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 670.452 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Lissack, M. and Roos, J. \(1999\). The next common sense: Mastering corporate complexity through coherence, London, UK: )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 658.548 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Nicholas Brealey Publishing Limited.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 639.143 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 639.143 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Morgan, G. \(1997\). Imaginization: New mindsets for seeing, organizing, and managing, San Francisco, CA: Berrett- Koehler )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 627.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Publishers, Inc.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 607.833 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 607.833 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Olson, E. and G. Eoyang. \(2001\). Facilitating organization change: Lessons from complexity science, San Francisco, CA: )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 595.929 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 576.524 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET
BT 43.553 576.524 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Owen, H. \(2004\). The practice of peace, Circle Pines, Minnesota: HSD Institute Press.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 557.119 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET
BT 43.553 557.119 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Stacey, R. \(2001\). Complex responsive processes, New York, NY: Routledge.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 537.714 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET
BT 43.553 537.714 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Wheatley, M. \(1992\). Leadership and the new science: Learning about organizationfrom an orderly universe, San Francisco, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 525.810 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 506.405 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET
BT 43.553 506.405 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Weisbord, M. and S. Janoff. \(2000\). Future search: An action guide to finding common ground in organizations & )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 494.500 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(communities, San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 475.095 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET
BT 43.553 475.095 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Zimmerman, B., Lindberg, C. and Plsek, P. \(2001\). Edgeware: Insights from complexity science for health care leaders, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 463.191 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Irving, TX: VHA, Inc.)] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 445.810 577.500 331.190 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 759.976 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 759.976 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Goldstein, J. \(1994\). The unshackled organization, New York: Productivity Press.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 740.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 740.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Kaplan, R. and D. Norton. \(1996\). The balanced scorecard, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 721.167 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 721.167 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Kaplan, D. and L. Glass. \(1995\) Understanding nonlinear dynamics, New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 701.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 701.762 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Knowles, R. \(2002\). The leadership dance: Pathways to extraordinary organizational effectiveness, NY: The Center for Self-)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 689.857 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Organizing Leadership.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 670.452 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 670.452 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Lissack, M. and Roos, J. \(1999\). The next common sense: Mastering corporate complexity through coherence, London, UK: )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 658.548 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Nicholas Brealey Publishing Limited.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 639.143 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 639.143 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Morgan, G. \(1997\). Imaginization: New mindsets for seeing, organizing, and managing, San Francisco, CA: Berrett- Koehler )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 627.238 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Publishers, Inc.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 607.833 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 607.833 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Olson, E. and G. Eoyang. \(2001\). Facilitating organization change: Lessons from complexity science, San Francisco, CA: )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 595.929 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 576.524 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET
BT 43.553 576.524 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Owen, H. \(2004\). The practice of peace, Circle Pines, Minnesota: HSD Institute Press.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 557.119 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET
BT 43.553 557.119 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Stacey, R. \(2001\). Complex responsive processes, New York, NY: Routledge.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 537.714 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET
BT 43.553 537.714 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Wheatley, M. \(1992\). Leadership and the new science: Learning about organizationfrom an orderly universe, San Francisco, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 525.810 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 506.405 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET
BT 43.553 506.405 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Weisbord, M. and S. Janoff. \(2000\). Future search: An action guide to finding common ground in organizations & )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 494.500 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(communities, San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 475.095 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET
BT 43.553 475.095 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Zimmerman, B., Lindberg, C. and Plsek, P. \(2001\). Edgeware: Insights from complexity science for health care leaders, )] TJ ET
BT 26.250 463.191 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Irving, TX: VHA, Inc.)] TJ ET
Q
q
15.000 445.810 577.500 331.190 re W n
0.271 0.267 0.267 rg
BT 26.250 759.976 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 759.976 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Goldstein, J. \(1994\). The unshackled organization, New York: Productivity Press.)] TJ ET
BT 26.250 740.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET
BT 38.132 740.571 Td /F1 9.8 Tf [(Kaplan, R. and D. Norton. \(1996\). The balanced scorecard, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.)] TJ ET
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